Monday, September 30, 2019
Helen Lawson uses a number of sound and picture devices in the poem Ã¢â¬Å"In TrainingÃ¢â¬ . How do they help us to enhance her description of the swimmer and the river?We have all seen a swimmer racing at all sports competition before, Ã¢â¬Å"In TrainingÃ¢â¬ , by Helen Lawson brings back the thoughts in our memory but moves the background setting to a calm, smooth river in the morning. The poem uses a series of sound and picture devices to help us imagine the swimmer powering through the water. Lawson explains the swimmerÃ¢â¬â¢s movements and uses extensive comparisons to help produce detailed pictures in the readerÃ¢â¬â¢s mind. Similes are a comparison between two people, places or things. This helps to create a picture in the readerÃ¢â¬â¢s mind of what the poet is portraying. There are a number of similes in the poem,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ ¦leaves/ that hang like a veilÃ¢â¬ , refer to a series of branches drooping over the river to resemble a veil. Ã¢â¬Å"Like a velvet gloveÃ¢â¬ , describes the river gently folding over her as she dives into the cool water of the river. Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦velvet gloveÃ¢â¬ , pictures the water grasping onto her as she streamlines underwater. These similes help to describe the image of the swimmer by relating to similar objects. Metaphors are used effectively in this poem to make a more direct comparison. These metaphors help in describing the swimmer and her surrounding with more detail. Ã¢â¬Å"Over the glass ribbonÃ¢â¬ portrays the riverÃ¢â¬â¢s water to look clear and Ã¢â¬Å"glassy like in appearanceÃ¢â¬ . Ã¢â¬Å"Then she is an engineÃ¢â¬ describes the swimmer powering through the water. Just like an engine, as she swims through the water her body moves in a repetitive and rhythmic way. Also, for an engine to function all the parts need to work together. The swimmer uses her legs and arms together to swim strongly. The metaphors used are very useful to help picture the swimmer in ones mind. Personification is used to make an object seem human like, even though it is non living, Lawson uses personification to give the impression of human feelings and movements. Ã¢â¬Å"Dawn WhispersÃ¢â¬ describes the sounds of the morning leaves and trees rustling in the light and fragile wind. Ã¢â¬Å"The river/ gently enfolds herÃ¢â¬ reflects on the river closing in and filling the empty spaces around the swimmer as she dives into the water. Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦MorningÃ¢â¬â¢s secretsÃ¢â¬ ,Ã describes happenings that only happen in the morning, some of the mornings hidden secrets that can only be seen in the early hours of the day. Personification is an effective form of describing movements and action of non living things, Lawson uses personification very well in this poem. Onomatopoeia is a sound device used in poems to give the impression of sound and effects. Ã¢â¬Å"Stirring the leavesÃ¢â¬ gives the impression of leaves rustling in the wind. Another example of onomatopoeia is Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ bursts through the surfaceÃ¢â¬ , this sentence gives the sound of a big rush of water as she surfaces. Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦explosion of action and soundÃ¢â¬ , portrays water been splashed up by the powerful body movements. The swimmer and the waterÃ¢â¬â¢s movements and sounds are clearly shown in the text and can be visualized easily. Ã¢â¬Å"In TrainingÃ¢â¬ is effective at portraying the swimmers burning desire to win. The poem helps us to feel the swimmerÃ¢â¬â¢s want to succeed by starting slowly, complimenting the calm setting of the story, but then building up to large and powerful words. This follows the pace of the swimmer. The swimmer starts slowly, but by the end is powering through the water, splashing up droplets of water that catch the sunshine. I can greatly reflect on this poem, times in the past I had the same passion, but also currently in my life, I have the same burning desire to win and succeed. References: Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"In TrainingÃ¢â¬ , Helen Lawson (Poem)- Helen Lawson Ã¢â¬â An Analysis, Unknown Author (2005)
Sunday, September 29, 2019
The book I chose to read was Ã¢â¬Å"When I Say No, I Feel GuiltyÃ¢â¬ by Manuel J. Smith. The first thing to stand out to me in this book was it seemed a little outdated. Even though the writing style and the examples appeared to be from a different era, I was still able to see how different points were relevant today and to me personally. This title screamed my name when I was browsing the list of choices because no matter what I am saying no to, I always feel guilty. From the first moment that we can feel and translate emotions, we have been manipulated by others. We have grown up under the sense that we should feel certain ways about particular actions. We forget to a chore when we are young, we should feel guilty. We bring a bad grade home on out report card, we should be scared of getting in trouble. Many activities are labeled either good or bad and we should portray emotions to match. As a manager, you should try to keep commands or statements neutral. A neutral statement is one that doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t assign the label of good or bad to a behavior so the recipient will not feel manipulated. Everyday, people try to manipulate you into doing what they want by making you feel nervous, uninformed, or blameworthy. If you let them push you around you will feel frustrated, angry or depressed. When you permit others to control your actions, you renounce your sense of personal responsibility. Smith states that the first step in fixing the situation is to know that Ã¢â¬Å"no one can manipulate your emotions or behavior if you donÃ¢â¬â¢t allow it to happen. Ã¢â¬ Also, following the Bill of Assertive Rights will help lead to non-manipulative relationships in all situations. The rights are the basis for all healthy relationships and are listed as: You have the right to judge your own behavior, thoughts and emotions, and to take the responsibility for their initiation and consequences upon yourself. You have the right to offer no reasons or excuses for justifying your behavior. You have the right to judge if you are responsible for finding solutions to other peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s problems. You have the right to change your mind. You have the right to make mistakes Ã¢â¬â and be responsible for them. You have the right to say, Ã¢â¬Å"I donÃ¢â¬â¢t knowÃ¢â¬ . You have the right to be independent of the goodwill of others before coping with them. You have the right to be illogical in making decisions. You have the right to say, Ã¢â¬Å"I donÃ¢â¬â¢t understandÃ¢â¬ . You have the right to say, Ã¢â¬Å"I donÃ¢â¬â¢t careÃ¢â¬ . The first right is the foundation of all of the remaining rights. When you become your own judge, you help to build a barrier against manipulation. Judgements should be based on your values and not external systems of what is right or wrong. People base their manipulative actions on the belief that you should live up to their rules. If you are accepting of this situation, you open yourself up to a limitless variety of manipulation. Criticism is a common tool people use to get someone to behave according to their standards. Reactions to criticism can be negative with anxiety, denial, and defensiveness. Learning to take criticism in a constructive manner helps to avoid manipulation. Verbal coping methods to help accept criticism effectively are fogging, negative assertion, and negative inquiry. Fogging is when you only agree to the truths in a statement and respond to what someone has specifically stated rather than what is implied. A negative assertion is statement that takes responsibility for something you have done wrong. It takes courage to make a negative assertion and say, IÃ¢â¬â¢m sorry. Last, using negative inquiry encourages the critic to reply assertively instead of manipulatively. This tactic is typically used to ask for additional information about a critique. There are also different types of relationships that fall into three categories, commercial, authority, and equality. Basic verbal skills used to minimize manipulation do not change as problems are handled throughout these different relationships. Commercial relationships are clearly defined with a contract. Since this type of relationship follows a defined structure an assertive verbal skill works most effectively. In an authority relationship there is one person in charge while the other is not. Authority based relationships emphasize finding compromises that grow on existing interpersonal dynamic. Both parties are equal in an equality relationship. This relationship is the most informal and tends to have everything open for discussion. Thoughtful open communication reassures people that you will not hinder their decision making, even if you may disagree. The main concept I took away from this book is, itÃ¢â¬â¢s my life and what happens in it is completely up to me! I will not cower when I face manipulation. My reactions to particular situations can pave the way for a disaster or a triumph. We must always be in touch with reality to promote our own well-being and happiness. We also have to accept the possibility that changing our mind is completely normal and healthy. Keeping the Assertive Bill of Rights in mind will help to stand up against manipulation and keep our dignity, self-respect, and control over our own behavior.
Saturday, September 28, 2019
Celebrity Endorsement in India Essay In India, celebrities are idolized as Gods and marketers have been trying their best to tap on this emotional connect of the people with the celebrities. Today, most of the popular brands are being endorsed by a famous personality either from entertainment industry or sports arena. Strategic brand positioning and effective communication are the keys to success in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s market where many brands compete in the same category for the market share. Companies are employing their maximum might to promote their brands and occupy a long lasting image in the minds of the consumers. In India, television is the most popular and effective means of the mass communication. There are over three million television commercials being aired every year. However, 80 percent of them are forgotten by the people in a day or two. So, it is imperative for the marketers to ensure that their ad campaign stands out amongst the crowd (Suhalka, n.d.). Since advertising is a highly critical tool for luring customers to make purchases, Indian firms are investing millions of rupees on celebrity advertising (Khatri, 2006). Celebrity endorsements are also an easy option for Indian marketers because of the disparities of the Indian consumer base in terms of religion, ethinicity, value system and most importantly economic variations. Therefore, advertisers in India emphasis a lot on brand recall and customer persuasion for differentiating their ad campaigns from those of the counterparts. It is here that celebrity endorsement provides a tremendous boost (Surana, 2008). For instance, one of the strongest celebrity endorser is cricketer Sachin Tendulkar who is a youth icon and endorses many successful brands like, Pepsi, Boost, Aviva Life Insurance, TVS, Britannia Biscuits, Visa, Airtel etc. Like, Shahrukh Khan, Amitabh Bac hchan, Kareena Kapoor also have many brands in their kitties. Indians love their celebrities and blindly follow their suit. This has proved to be a boon for the marketers and celebrity endorsement is just getting better by the day. It has now become an indispensible part of the marketing communication strategy. It is a win ?win situation for both the celebrities and the brands. However, the consumers are ones who are least benefitted as they end up paying more for the products and services. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Khatri, P., 2006. Celebrity Endorsement: A Strategic Promotion Perspective. Indian Media Studies Journal, 1(1).Pp. 25-37 Ã¢â¬ ¢ Suhalka,G.n.d. Celebrity Endorsers and Endorsements in India- The Rise and the Impact [pdf] Available at: http://www.ndtvmi.com/b4/dopesheets/garima.pdf [Accessed 18 February 2012] Ã¢â¬ ¢ Surana,R., 2008. The Effectiveness of Celebrity Endorsement in India [pdf] Available at: http://edissertations.nottingham.ac.uk/2069/1/08MAlixrs13.pdf [Accessed 18 February 2012] Commentary | Theses | Dissertations | Journals & Articles | Proposals & Synopsis | Essays | Promotional Writing | Press Release Copyright Ã © 2005 Ã¢â¬â 2012 Project Guru India. All rights reserved. www.ProjectGuru.in Celebrity Endorsement in India. (2016, Dec 07).
Friday, September 27, 2019
Cultural Diversity in the Workplace - Essay Example Managing cultural diversity in workplace is one of the key objectives of the organization among other concern areas of sustaining productivity as well as quality, total quality management and customer satisfaction. The diversity in the workforce is mainly due to presence of people coming from varying set of backgrounds. They differ in their value systems, culture, beliefs, attitude and behaviour, habits and customs (Henderson, 1994). Thus to bring the entire workforce together on the same platform is extremely significant in terms of bringing them to a common tune of work. The integration of a workforce which is culturally diversified lies at the beneath of the long term success of the organization. The issues to be considered for managing people from an environment of cross-culture are training and development of the employees, organizational dynamics aimed at optimizing the performance of the global managers. The building of confidence to bring out the professionalism of manager ar riving from an international scenario is important. The adaptability to the home environment is required to work in harmony with the organization policies which could be achieved through managing the cultural diversity of the workforce. ... The strategies adopted by organizations are solely based on the data collected by the organizations on the personal trends, labour segments and customer segments. The analysis of the collected data helps the management to understand about the thought process of the diversified set of employees on the developments and progress of the organization. The attitude of the workforce towards their business opportunities and growth could be analyzed from the information collected by the organizations. For international operations, a diversified set of employees in the workforce could prove to be advantageous. The alignment to the different set of cultures, understanding the needs of customers from varying cultural backgrounds and addressing those needs with the help of employees from specific cultural backgrounds help the organizations to attain expansion in the world markets and also to get a competitive advantage. The strategies for managing cultural diversity of the workforce in an organiz ation vary with respect to the ethno-centric, region centric as well as geocentric approaches (Walton, 1994). The ethnocentric approach considers people from different ethnic backgrounds. The region-centric approach considers the members of the workforce from different regional backgrounds. The geocentric approach takes the people from all over the world into consideration for managing the diversity of people from cross-cultural backgrounds. In the present scenario of business expansions, the integration of the host with the international markets and culture is extremely important for the good interest of the organization. The attainment of cultural diversity in business operations is obvious under such situations. Thus the management of cultural diversity is also
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Effective Project Control - Assignment Example According to Fox (2010), the implications of applying strategic guidelines to define the procedure of project management are relevant with reference to examining various methods through which a particular project can be organized. For example, models such as PERT are critical in exploring and assessing the efficacy of applying alternative options in cases where the original plan has failed to generate desired consequences. Moreover, Fox (2010) also notes that such facilities also provide managers with the ability to control the project in a more effective manner by integrating standard guidelines. In accordance with this understanding the most important element to ensuring effective control can be labeled as the determination of a critical path and the management of time constraints for meeting outlined goals and aims. The recognition of a critical path as a factor in effective project control essentially aims to align the gap between expected and achieved project times calculated on as per the entirety of the project (Fox, 2010). Consequently, the succeeding factor of consideration is linked with exploring the operational demands of the project; these elements are marked by outlining various factors including the suggested organization and allocation of resources and materials in addition with the prioritizing operations and activities. Integral concepts in effective project control and management comprise of understanding the significance of time management and scheduling (Lewis, 2004). However, in the realm of the controlling element of project management, it is fundamental to identify specific activities and operational aspects of the work so as to explore the potential of resources and assign them to respective projects. According to Lewis (2004), the estimation of cumulative resource allocation and the assignment of each factor is important
Statistics - Essay Example 2. You wish to estimate the weight of the students at EKU. Using the question 2 data, calculate your sample mean to the nearest tenth of a pound. Use that estimate to construct 95% confidence interval for the true average if you know that the standard deviation of the population is 2.3 pounds. Construct 95% confidence interval if you do not know the true standard deviation. Comment on why those confidence intervals are different. Both confidence intervals are slightly different because one is computed based on known population standard deviation, ÃÆ' and z distribution and other is calculated based on sample standard deviation, s and t distribution. The t distribution has slightly broader tails then z distribution, therefore, the confidence interval is also slightly wider as compared to z distribution. 3. The average height in the United States for men is 69.3 inches. The standard deviation for the population of the men in the US is 3.4 inches. You measure a sample of people from Richmond and find that the average of these 16 men is 71.4 inches with a sample standard deviation of 4.8 inches. Assume all testing is for 95% confidence. 4. We wish to compare the weights of the people of Richmond, Kentucky with those of Lexington, Kentucky. We do not know the standard deviation for the population as a whole and we cannot assume that the unknown sigma is the same for each city. We take a sample from each city and the results are as follows All the three models are statistically significant and also, In model 3, individually, ParentÃ¢â¬â¢s income and Years of education significantly predicts personÃ¢â¬â¢s annual income . However, the adjusted R2 value for the model 3 is highest of all the regression models. Therefore, the best model is given by Adjusted R2 is a measure of Goodness-of-fit and penalizes the R2 for adding additional explanatory variables. The higher the value of adjusted R2,
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Communication - Essay Example Professional communication skills, especially strategic, leadership and organizational communication help individuals to develop competence in communication in their areas of expertise (Birkinshaw, 10). Most individuals who take up MastersÃ¢â¬â¢ degree classes in Communication are professionals seeking to enhance their knowledge in communication beyond basic communication. Aside from training students on essential communication skills, the institution works to instill a passion for theoretical and intellectual discovery that goes beyond the expectations of the course and the career objectives of students. The UCCS encourages students to undertake their own research into communication as a discipline. This research is supplementary to the lessons learnt in class that are ascribed to communication such as essential skills of effective communication and the application of these skills to different relevant settings (McKay & Martha, 79). According to the programÃ¢â¬â¢s homepage, the expectation upon graduation is that every student will possess an advanced and broad-based understanding and knowledge of the processes of communication and the theories concerning organizational communication relevant to the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s area of interest. This is important, considering the fact that in any career, communication is imperative to performing well (Birkinshaw, 18). Knowledge and understanding of organizational communication enables a professional to relate well with his or her colleagues at the workplace. Issues such as the effective delivery of instructions espouse satisfactory performance, which leads to effectiveness in undertaking duties (Worth, 40). The program also intends to equip every student with communication skills. Communication skills entail the analysis of contexts and critical thinking. With regard to critical thinking, students are taught to process
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
National Political Convention Project - Research Paper Example The analysis will be the framework for state and urban fusion centres to conduct a study on the threats posed by terrorism activities. In addition, the analysis will help to thwart any attacks that Al Qaeda wishes to coincide with US national biennial political campaigns. It will give recommendations after studying the past attacks by Al Qaeda. In late 1998, Al Qaeda targeted US embassies in both Kenya and Tanzania. It was a successful mission for the group. Then there was the bombing of American consulate in Pakistan. Al Qaida planned to kill 5000 people in Mumbai, but they managed to kill a less number. The worst attack was in September of 2008. It was the biggest terrorism attack in the worlds history. History indicates that Al Qaeda always launch their surges on the day preceding every biennial US election, since 2000 Al Qaeda has a cyclical pattern of conducting attacks on America, six weeks preceding the elections. There was a partially accurate pattern since 2000 to 2008. Experts have provided forewarning about the attacks. The forewarning is accurate and indicates the timings and locations of the attacks. The experts predicted accurately the 9/11 attacks and the failed plot to send bomb parcels to the US. With the attacks, the experts predicted a possibility of the attacks in 2012, to ensure there is an election rigging. There is sufficient evidence to prove the attacks. The terrorists in New York, targeted financial institutions, in the city. Furthermore, there were catastrophic attacks in Washington. Government and military buildings were the main targets. All these attacks happened six days before US national biennial elections. The terrorists were from Yemen. They are a branch of Al Qaeda. In addition to the attacks in American soil, the terrorist bombed New Delhi and Tel Aviv (Riedel, 2010). All these pattern of attacks shows the US is vulnerable to future attacks. The attacks happen during the election
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Specific Applications of PR & PA - Essay Example The essay takes a descriptive approach where societal factors as well as economic factors affecting the role of public affairs and public administration are discussed. Public Relation has been recognized as one of the vital managerial functions of an organization. It is because of the fact that with effective Public Relations an organization benefits a lot like to say it helps to create a better image in the organization in times of severe crisis through removing the misunderstanding among the organization and their public, enables to provide sufficient information about the launching of their new product or services, helps to overcome resistance, removes contradictory conditions between the organization and its public and lastly it helps to announce any unfavorable conditions is going to happen in the future (Theaker, 2001). The subject matter of the study is how a Public Relations plays an important role in the context of social and economic. Before passing to the role, it is necessary to understand the concept of Public Relation. Public Relation is essentially a management function which involves monitoring and evaluating the attitudes of the p ublic which include shareholders, government, consumers, employees and the media, through continuous communication with them so as to establish and maintain a mutual relationship and understanding between an them and the organization. In other words it can be told as a managerial function which assists in establishing and maintaining the mutual flow of communication, understanding, acceptance and cooperation between an organization and its publics through keeping in touching with the public, by calling a conference, working with press or through communicating with the employees. Public Relation plays an important role in the organization in terms of social and economic context. In the context of social, the organization should be very careful in choosing the Public Relation applications. Because every organization stands in the society and has a responsibility to protect the interest of the society in general, so there arises the duty of organization to choose an effective Public Relation. The society comprising of people near to the company must be aware of the policies or the product that is going to launch. If any decision is taken which may influence the society negatively ultimately it may affect the smooth running of the organization. So before going to execute any programs for communicating with the society it must evaluate or analyze opinion of the society (Sriramesh, 2003). For this Public Relation should be an effective one. An effective Public Relation can establish and maintain a mutual relationship between the organization and its public. Such P ublic Relations helps the organization to know about the likely comment about the product and the organization. On other hand in the context of economic, there is no doubt that the adoption of Public Relation in the organization will not be a waste to the organization. Instead of that it will provide so many economic benefits to the organization in terms of economic. That is with the effective Public Relation an organization can achieve the objectives at very low cost as compared to other promotional
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Dynamic and flexible opportunities Essay Different institution or any organized group that composes members and hierarchy of position can establish welfare policy to maintain balance and harmony. Policymakers are faced with a challenging task to present variety of opportunities, orders and challenges basically for the benefits of those people under a group or institution. However what if those welfare policies create different impacts on the participants? Since an organize group composed of different kinds of members, one can not guarantee that everyone will agree with the given rules and policies. Opinion and principles from different kinds of people who have different cultural and social orientation may collide and thus create conflict. Some policies that are beneficial to others may be a disadvantage to some. Can the conflicting goals of welfare policy ever be reconciled to produce an effective welfare policy? Diversity of ideas and insights from different members can create a relationship within the group who will explore and examine the conflicting interests that is associated to the given welfare policies. The prevailing sense of community from this relationship can establish a sense of understanding from the ideas and goals of each. Since policy welfare is always equated with the well being within the members, relationships and human attachment will be beneficial to unity. This will encourage members to discuss and review the welfare policy that should aim to propose measures which will bring a fairer distribution of resources and opportunities. Attachment will definitely give them a moral responsibility. Variety of insights from different cultural and social orientation can challenged the minds of the policy makers to create more dynamic and flexible opportunities and policies that will suit all members. As a result, these flexible opportunities will help the members to enhance and explore their talents and capabilities outside their normal orientation. The innovated policy welfare because of conflicting goals may create subsequent developments to the individuality of the members and later on to the institution as a whole. Sometimes conflicting goals from the established welfare policy can be healthy and beneficial to the organized group. It encourages innovation to the welfare policy which as a result can motivate new discoveries to the possible policies that can help the members grow as a person and as professionals. Diversity of culture and principles can motivate learning and self discovery. In order to established effective welfare policy, one must discover their full potentials.
Friday, September 20, 2019
The Important Car Industry In Malaysia Marketing Essay The automotive industry is one of the most important industries in the manufacturing sector in Malaysia. Comparing with other manufacturing industries, the automotive industry is a promising one and contributes boosting and evolving economic and industrialization processes which leads Malaysia to change into a developed country in the foreseeable future. The automotive industry in Malaysia started in the 1960s and the Government of Malaysia began to encourage the establishment of the automotive industry in 1963. Initially, the assembly plants were mainly joint venture projects between European automobile manufacturers and local partners were previously their local distributors. Although at the beginning there was requirement to promote the growth of components manufacturing, but the industry was not very successful until 1980s. At that time there were some assemblers who just produced vehicles for European and Japanese manufacturers and there were large amounts of import. In fact the development in auto industry was started by launching of the National Car Project which was PROTON in 1983. Proton Company profile Proton which is the acronym of Perusahan Otomobil Nasional Berhad was founded in 1983 as manufacturing, assembling and selling motor vehicles and related products which were then produced Malaysias first car named Proton Saga. The main plant of the company was established in Shah Alam, with the capacity of 80000 units per year. Proton could increase this capacity to 230000 units per year in 1997 by constructing another factory next to its main plant. Today, the factory in Shah Alam has the capacity of producing 240000 vehicles per year. PROTON has a total of 11 subsidiaries and 11 associate companies, which are involved in manufacturing, research and development, as well as sales and service activities. Proton exports to 50 countries including the competitive markets of UK and continental European markets as its objectives include research and development capabilities, world class manufacturing and production standards, design capabilities as well as a presence in the global market. Considering Malaysias short and long term economic objectives, Proton was established to fulfill these goals with the help of technological knowledge and know-how. As a result, with the use of resources, technology, innovations, and design capabilities the national car project resulted in remarkable impact on automotive industry. PROTON was Malaysias dominant auto manufacturer until the establishment of PERODUA, in the year 1993. Now the Malaysian auto market is dominated by Malaysias national cars, PROTON and PERODUA which jointly accounted for 90 per cent of the vehicles sold annually. PROTONS production was based on technology and parts from Mitsubishi Motors, and it produced the first model which was Proton Saga in September 1985 at its first manufacturing plant in Shah Alam. At the beginning the components were made by Mitsubishi but gradually the company began producing those parts with the help of technological knowledge. PROTON also entered to international markets through exporting. For instance it began its exports from Malaysia to other right hand drive markets like New Zealand and UK as well as the Middle East, South-East Asia and Australasia, but it was mostly successful in UK. It is possible to say that proton which came as a national auto manufacturer 25 years ago, now evolved to an international auto maker. 1.2. Ethical considerations One of the important issues regarding proton is consideration of ethical issues as well as its social responsibilities. As a result, in addition to its focus on the profitability, it also focuses on human resource development, the environment and the society within its operations. Proton objectives include meeting expectations of good corporate governance, ethnical corporate values and responsible corporate citizens. MARKET STRUCTURE CHARACTERISTICS OLIGOPOLY Number of firms competing Small number Nature of the product Undifferentiated or differentiated Entry Many barriers Information availability Asymmetric Firms control over price Some An oligopolistic market is the one which is dominated by some large suppliers. Homogeneous products, mutual interdependence, few large producers and high entry barriers are oligopoly characteristics prevalent in such markets. The three most import characteristics of oligopoly include: Industry dominance by few large firms Products sold by these firms are either differentiated or identical in nature Various entry barriers depending upon the industry Few large firms is a very crucial oligopoly characteristics which states that these markets include few large firms which are dominant in existence, and each of these firms is comparatively larger than the market size. This particular oligopoly characteristic ensures that all these large firms have a fair amount of market control. The automobile industry is a very good example of an oligopolistic market. There are a few car manufacturers in the market across the world as against the demand for millions of cars every day. The dominant car manufacturers include General Motors, Honda, Chrysler, Toyota and Ford, to name a few. The automobile industry in an oligopolistic market is a Differentiate Product Oligopoly where the products manufactured are for personal consumption as consumers need a variety of products since they have different needs and wants. In Malaysia, the national automobile industry is dominated by the countrys two leading manufacturers, namely PROTON and PERODUA. PROTON is 42% owned by the Government. Rising car sales in 2010 has pushed up production in all car assemblers in Malaysia except for the national car maker, PROTON. PROTONs market share has reached 80% at its peak but now it has lost its market share to local and foreign competitors from 60% of the domestic passenger car market in 2001 to 26% for year 2010. Protons brand value has also dropped from RM239 million in 2007 (rank 19) to RM150 million in 2008 (rank 23). It was revealed in November 2009 that Protons ranking has dropped from Malaysias 30 Most Valuable Brand (MMVB) ranking. It was reported in the newspapers that PROTON is only operating at half of its capacity. PROTON Shah Alam was operating at 54% while PROTON Tanjung Malim is at 42%. The combined installed capacity production for PROTONs two plants is 350,000 units per year and PERODUA 250,000 per year that is about 48.7% and 79% respectively, accounting for about 61%, more than half of the total industry output. As reported by the Malaysian Automotive Association (MAA), UMW Toyota Motor Subsidiary, Assembly Services, was operating at 215 per cent production capacity, Honda at 212 per cent, Tan Chong Motors at 143 per cent, and PERODUA at 164 per cent.Ã [i]Ã For years, both PROTON and PERODUA have led charmed lives as national car companies, indulged by the Government and over-protected behind a wall of tariff and non-tariff barriers, tax exemptions, rebates, subsidies and other special favors. PROTON has only introduced four (4) new models in recent years the second generation Proton Saga in 2008, Exora in 2009 and Inspira in 2010. PROTON was knocked off as the top Malaysian car producer in 2006 by PERODUA which becomes Malaysias largest vehicle maker. PROTON is the second most popular marque for year 2010. PERODUA remains the most popular make in the passenger vehicle category while third-place Toyota is the most popular foreign car at 12.9% market share. PROTONs market share is 26% and PERODUA is 31.2%. Their combined market share has fallen to 57% today, with more than 30 foreign makers now in Malaysia competing for the remainder.Ã [ii]Ã PROTON remains handicapped by lack of scale, overcapacity, outdated technology, a limited product line up, and other disabilities. The company suffers from state protectionist policies and need a strategic partner for growth. PROTON also needs technology it does not have to produce attractive new models. Malaysias revised National Automotive Policy (NAP) that took effects on 1 January 2010 ostensibly to deregulate the domestic market attract more foreign auto makers into the country and would not likely meet the governments expectations. To sop up some of the excess capacity, PROTON managers are adopting an Asian multi-local OEM strategy focused mainly on expanding exports into Southeast Asia, China, India, the Middle East and North Africa. How well this will work is questionable given the intensifying competition among global auto makers for export sales, the models PROTON has to offer, and the minor role of exports so far in the auto makers operations. Proton exports 81,000 units of cars between 2008 2010. For year 2010, total export revenues amounted to only RM889 million. The Kinked Demand Curve A very common and important feature of oligopoly is that the action of, or on, one specific manufacturer will affect the other manufacturers, especially their sales. The kinked demand curve model best described PROTONs oligopoly behavior. PROTON faces a downward sloping demand curve but its elasticity may depend on the reaction of its competitors to changes in its prices or outputs. The competitors for example may not follow the increase in PROTONs prices in their attempt to maintain a high level of profits and market share. Demand therefore will be relatively elastic and a rise in price instead would lead to a fall in the total revenue of PROTON. On the other hand, the competitors might more likely to match a price fall by PROTON to avoid a loss of market share, causing demand to become inelastic leading to a fall in total revenue. As all these producers in an oligopolistic market are interdependent they need to consider the impact and reactions on other firms while determining their own pricing and investment policies. For example, when PROTON launches a new product (Exora) , it affects other producers and their sales causing them to react with a new product (e.g. PERODUA: Alza), which inflates the market price. Ã Ã 4.Competitive Environment For Proton Company The first Malaysia national car is PROTON. The main competitor in Malaysia in term of automobile companies and affordable car is PERODUA. The competitive environment as we can see approximately in Malaysia is affordable car where all native of a Malaysia can buy it and the car maintenances also cheap. You see, the porter five are been applied for more obviously because the competitive environment not only about the competitor. It can be about the economic decline, natural misfortune and etc. Porter five 1. Competitive Rivalry 2. Threat of New Entrant 3. Threat of SubstitutesÃ 4. Buyer Power 5. Supplier Power Competitive RivalryÃ In Malaysia, after PERODUA that is main competitor for proton , there is not too much competitor around affordable car. The low cost car as mentioned above is not have a lot of competitor in generally. The affordable car in Malaysia has a more potential to sell compared to luxury car that only specific people are used it. A family will have more than 1 car. Definitely, the first car they will choose the cheaper car and affordable car. New Entrant has a high threat Ã Recession the economic will be a big threat for PROTON. We know that, all big company will facing over budget or does not achieve the sale for that year. The government will lose a lot of money cause of policy and shareholders. By the way, economic downward tendency actually comes suddenly without notice. High threat from Substitutes Malaysia has tow national car. First : PROTON , second : PERODUA. The substitutes will high in term of car model and some of them looks similar. Buyer Power Buyer will choose the cheap car for the first car and buyer also actually are fragmented. Therefore, it will not has much influence.Ã Supplier Power Nowadays compared to the many years ago, this is not giving a big threat for PROTON. Government and PROTON As a Government connected Company, Proton is protected in term of financial capabilities. Furthermore, as the firstÃ national automotive manufacturer they have more than 20 years of experience and backed by the more than 1000 suppliers and highly concentrated distributed the service and distribution way out. As financial year ender 31Ã March 2006 denoted, the net value of asset is more than RM 5 billion while the liabilities is only about RM 2 billion. Proton had begun on a project with the Lotus. Group to improve a hybrid vehicle proficient of running on both gasoline and electricity and others special projects that are concentrating on technology development. This program direct to raise high the technology to a level that is on par with their global rivals by creating an alternative vehicle for the future which provides customers with less fuel consumption, decrease emanation and uncompromising performance. The increase numbers of substantial order by the different overseas markets were far in surplus of the number shipped, the difference was due to restrictions in the supply chain. There is no uncertain that demand for Proton cars in the overseas markets exists. As such, looking forward into financial year 2007, the company predicts a meaningful improvement in the number of Proton cars sold overseas. International Market for Proton The objectives of the Malaysian National Car:Ã Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Rationalize the local automotive industry Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Spearhead the development of a local component industry and to enhance greater use of local components.Ã Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Encourage the upgrading of technology, engineering knowledge and technical skills of the countrys workforce.Ã Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Assist and develop Bumiputera (the indigenous people of Malaysia) participation in the automotive industry.Ã  Social, Economy, Politic and Technology analyses Proton Holdings Berhad Proton is a Malaysian national automobile manufacturer. Proton Holdings Berhad is the holding company which is listed on the Bursa Malaysia. 14,706 Proton cars were exported in 2006 to other countries/ Proton exports cars to the United Kingdom, South Africa, and Australia and the company is aggressively marketing its cars in several other countries including the Middle East. Proton cars has also been exporting a small volume of cars to other countries like: 1.Singapore 2.Brunei 3.Indonesia 4.Nepal 5.Sri 6.Pakistan 7.Bangladesh 8.Taiwan 9.CyprusÃ 10.Mauritius Proton has never succeeded to export their car to the US, because the cars required many changes to meet American safety standards in order to secure coverage from auto insurers and satisfy legislative requirements. In some countries, Ã Proton cars suffer somewhat from a poor public image because of their designs. StrengthsÃ Proton has over 20 years of experience in Automotive industry Many cars are exported by Proton to many countries every years, proves that proton has the experience of exporting cars. Did the financial crisis in 2008/09 have any impact on the group? What about the current economic turmoil in Europe? Mohd Nadzmi,( chairman),said : The global automotive industry was affected by the financial crisis in 2008/09, and this included Proton. However, in our case, being small was actually an advantage, and because of our size, we were able to minimise the impact on our business. Protons presence in Europe is also small, hence we were not affected by the economic turmoil there. Because Lotus has a bigger presence globally, the impact of the crisis on it is bigger. However, Lotus operates on small volumes, hence any financial damage was minimised.Ã  Swot Analyze: The inability to succeed by Proton to find a foreign associate is a cautioning gesture that it is no longer a competitive and economically capable to living entity with present market condition and debatable management determinations that reason Proton to lose money when other finds profits. Hence, Proton Holdings Berhad requires to regard a foreign participation to more develop on its quality and service to the buyers. Khazanah Malaysia, the Malaysian governments investment arm, holding about 42.74% of Proton, followed by the Employees Provident Fund with 15.4 per cent and Petronas with 7.9 per cent. Price/Earnings: Not Meaningful Price/Sales: 0.3x (2/5 points) Price/Book: 0.4x (2/5 points) Price/Cash Flow: Not Meaningful TEV/Sales: 0.1x (3/5 points) A integrator has its profits economies of scale, market domination, etc. but an expand national car company could produce many duplications i.e. product, merchants network, sellers etc. Proton is finding it tough to decorate its network of providers and distributors.National car company Proton Holdings Berhad once dominated with a majority share in the market. It has since not only lost that majority, its sales in unit terms have even dropped below that of unlisted Perusahaan Otomobil Kedua Berhad (Perodua). UMW Holdings Berhad is the biggest in the sector, with a market value of RM5.9 billion, compared with Protons RM1 billion. Although, UMW has an important oil and gas division, it derives most of its profits from its Toyota division, the most profitable in the industry. In the other hand, Proton reported a loss of RM75 million in the October December quarter last year. It is surpassed in market value by Oriental Holdings Berhad (RM2.3 billion) and DRB-HICOM Berhad (RM1.4 billion), both of which are variegated motor-based groups. In my deduction, Proton should go on to strive strategic alliances and further expand its market in the whole world because of the finishing of conversations with Volkswagen AG in the year of 2007. In an outlook, Proton requires to basically join more into the global supply chain and the global market. Fundamentally, we have not attained the type of sell overseas permeation projected when the company was based. Global motor vehicle industry was enduring a solidification and Proton should be component of this mode. We require to be part of the greater family in a path that works for us.Up to now, there were not any explanation regarding The Public Accounts Committee (PAC) submit its report on Proton Holdings Berhads sale of Italian motorbike manufacturer, MV Augusta to GEVI s.p.a at one euro to Parliament because Proton had obtained a 57.75 percent risk in MV Augusta in December 2004 for 70 million euro (RM367.6 million). The factory is recently producing 240,000 units per year. Opened in 2005, a phase of the art assembly plant was put together at Tanjung Malim, 60 miles north of Kuala Lumpur. This area has been named Proton City and be made up of 500 hectare site containing the factory, plant, housing, a university and other commercial buildings to lodge part suppliers. This plant produces the 3 novel model ranges, the GEN-2, Savvy and Satria Neo. Protons total workplace in Malaysia totals just over 6,000 staffs working in all areas of vehicle design, RD, production and manufacturing. By way of a strong base built up since 1983, Malaysias car manufacturing industry is growing fast.Ã Proton apparatus a major step forward in upgrading its engineering capabilities when it acquired a share in Lotus are closely involved in Protons new model development, with a group of engineers perpetually based at the design and development centre in Malaysia. The Company has come a long way since 1983, PROTON was publicly listed on the Kuala Lumpur stock conversion in 1992, and current day, Proton cars are sent abroad to more than 50 countries throughout the world. Key export markets contain Australia, Singappore, the far East and the UK, where during 2009 it celebrates 20 years in the market place.Ã From 1989 until now, Proton Cars (UK) Ltd have been presenting the British public dependable value for money vehicles. 6. Market Power With governments protection and general tariff set up to protect Malaysias fragile automobile industry, Proton continue to record as one of the most profitable car in Malaysia and continue to profit and churn out new cars almost every year. Some of the best selling models, like the MyVi also continue to generate income to the Proton Holdings. In the early days of Proton, the market share was small compared to the other Japanese made cars which were highly used here. But, by 2002 Proton held a market share of over 60% in Malaysia, which was reduced to barely 30% by 2005 and is expected to reduce further in 2008 when AFTA mandates reduce import tariffs to a maximum of 5%. The national car company, Perusahaan Otomobil Nasional or Proton, was established in the early 1980s as a key component of Malaysias heavy industrialization program. From the onset of the projects implementation, the government tilted playing field in the domestic car market in Protons favor by exempting it from import duties on CKD kits. As a result, Proton was able to sell its cars at prices 20-30 percent cheaper than comparable cars produced by other car assemblers in the country. By the 1990s, Proton had become the dominant car producer in the Malaysian Market. Today, about 75 percent of vehicle sales are controlled by Proton (45 percent) and the second national car company Perodua (30 percent). This dominance was however threatened by Malaysias commitment under the ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA) agreement to reduce import duties to 20 percent in 2005 and between zeros to five percent in 2008. The implementation of these trade liberalization commitments would seriously affect Protons (and Peroduas) competitiveness vis-Ã -vis their competitors. The governments response in 2004 was to raise the excise duties to neutralize the reduction in import duty. The import duty on CKD passenger cars from ASEAN countries were reduced from 42%-80% to 25% while excise duty was increased from 55% to between 60%-100%. For CBU units from ASEAN countries, the import duty was reduced from between 140%-300% to 70%-190% while excise duty was increased by between 60%-100%. The above case illustrates how the impact of trade liberalization (e.g. via import tariff reduction) can be neutralized by the use domestic policies (such as excise tax) by the government to support its industrial policy. In Malaysias case, this strategy is probably an interim strategy aimed at buying some time for restructuring of the national industry. The restructuring, for example, may take the form of a future joint venture with a major foreign car producer. (a) Industrial Policy, Market Entry and Competition: The EON Proton Edar Case Industrial policy may also create anti-competition problems. The recent case of EON vs. Proton Edar illustrates this point. Cars produced by the national car company, Perusahaan Otomobil Nasional Berhad (Proton), have been traditionally distributed domestically by two firms, namely, Proton Edar Sdn Bhd (Proton Edar) and Edaran Otomobil Nasional Bhd (EON). EON was established in 1984 as the sole distributor of the national car (Proton Saga). The strategy adopted then was to separate the manufacturing activity from the distribution activity. Proton Edar was established in 1985 and it later evolved into a joint-venture between DRB and Proton Berhad in 1993 to distribute Protons cars (Proton Wira). Proton Edar became a wholly-owned subsidiary of Proton in 2000 and subsequently began to distribute other Proton models (Wira, Perdana and Iswara) that were previously distributed by EON. In the same year, the 10-year distribution agreement between Proton and EON ended. A new dealership agreement have since not been concluded. These changes set the stage for further intensification of the rivalry between EON and Proton Edar to distribute Protons cars. Problems arose with the launching of a new Proton car, namely the Gen.2 on 8th February 2003. Not surprising, Proton chose to initially distribute Gen.2 solely through its wholly-owned subsidiary Proton Edar. In addition, EON will have to obtain its supply of Gen.2 from Proton Edar Proton has also argued that EON should restrict itself to selling a single brand in a single showroom, referring to EONs current practice of selling Protons cars as well as that of Audi and Chevrolet. Anti-competitive conduct is fairly obvious in the EON-Proton Edar case. There is a severe conflict of interest due to Protons ownership of Proton Edar. It is in Protons commercial interest to favor its own subsidiary Proton Edar against EON. This has manifested in Protons conduct to vertically restraint EONs competitiveness by restricting its access to a new product. Worse, EONs only source of supply of the new product is now its rival Proton Edar. Furthermore, Protons insistence on the a single brand in a single showroom distribution policy is akin to market foreclosure to reduce inter-brand competition in the car market. There was no government intervention at the initial stages of these controversies surrounding the EON-Proton Edar case. As the above debate became more public and acrimonious, the government did intervene to hasten both parties to sign a five-year dealership agreement on 2 March 2004. Part of the government ability to intervene in the above case is due to the fact that it is a major shareholder in both Proton and EON. The dealership agreement signed may contain elements that should go under competition policy scrutiny. One such clause is the requirement that EON allocates 70 percent of its servicing capacity to Proton cars. This may be construed as the use of market power by the supplier firm (Proton) to force a buyer firm (EON) to limit the latters ancillary services to other competing suppliers. This is an important issue given the importance of the ancillary services to the actual sale of the primary product (cars). Industrial policy can also restrict competition via the promotion of strong vertically integrated structures. In the Proton case, this took the form of car production and distribution. The absence of a competition law obviously exacerbated these vertical restraint problems. If such a law had existed and if Proton was found to be guilty of anti-competitive conduct, it could have been forced to divests its distribution subsidiary. Furthermore, the government currently regulates these companies via its substantial shareholdings in these companies. If the government were to divest its controlling shareholding in these companies, these companies would need to be regulated by competition laws. Barriers to Entry The barriers to enter the automotive industry are substantial. For a new company, the startup capital required to establish manufacturing capacity to achieve minimum efficient scale is prohibitive. An automotive manufacturing facility is quite specialized and in the event of failure could not be easily retooled. Although the barriers to new companies are substantial, established companies are entering new markets through strategic partnerships or through buying out or merging with other companies. In fact, the barriers to entry for new (or different) markets may be quite low; in the 1980s, U.S. companies Team A 4 practically invited Japanese makers into the U.S. by failing to offer quality vehicles in the lower price markets. All of the large automotive companies have globalize and entered foreign markets with varying degrees of success. In the newer, undeveloped markets of Asia, Africa, and South America, the barriers to entry similarly exist. However, a domestic start up, with local knowledge and expertise, has the potential to compete in its home market against the global firms who are not yet well established there. Such an operation, if successful, would surely be snatched up by one of the global giants and incorporated into its fold. 1. The threat of new entrants in the auto manufacturing industry, this is generally a very low threat. Factors to examine for this threat include all barriers to entry such as upfront capital requirements (it costs a lot to set up a car manufacturing facility), brand equity (a new firm may have none), legislation and government policy (think safety, EPA and emissions), ability to distribute the product 2. The bargaining power of buyers/customers who has ever bought a car without bargaining? In early 1990s especially, Proton dealers were giving great deals to buyers to get the industry moving. While quantity a buyer purchases is usually a good factor in determining this force, even in the automotive industry when buyers only usually purchase one car at a time, they still wield considerable power. However, this may be different in other markets. In Singapore it sure is lower than in the US, creating a more favorable situation for the industry but not the buyers. Generally, however, its safe to say the customers have some buying power, but it depends on the market. 3. The threat of substitute products If buyers can look to the competition or other comparable products, and switch easily (they have low switching costs) there may be a high threat of this force. With new cars, the switching cost is high because you cant sell a brand new car for the same price you paid for it. A P5F analysis of the car industry covers the new market, not used or second-hand. But what about the threat of substitute products before the buyer makes the purchase? You need to know whether the market you are analyzing has many good alternatives to new cars. A vibrant used car market perhaps? Used cars threaten the new market. How about a very good mass-transportation system? Product differentiation is important too. In the car industry, typically there are many cars that are similar just look at any mid-range Toyota and you can easily find a very similar Nissan, Honda, or Mazda. However, if you are looking at amphibious cars, there may be little threat of substitute products (this is an extreme example!). I n Protons case, the substitute of this car remains low as its continuos support from the government being the national car of Malaysia plays an integral part in Protons operations. 4. The amount of bargaining power suppliers have In the car industry this refers to all the suppliers of parts, tires, components, electronics, and even the assembly line workers. We know that some suppliers are small firms who rely on the carmakers, and may only have one carmaker as a client. So this force can be tricky to evaluate. The Proton still commands a relatively stronger market despite the ample suppliers available thanks to the government policy. 5. The intensity of the competitive rivalry We know that in most countries all carmakers are engaged in fierce competition. Tit-for-tat price slashes, ad campaigns, and product developments keep them on the edge of innovation and profitability. Margins are low and pressure between rivals is high. All major car-producing nations experience this
Thursday, September 19, 2019
Good Fellas Movie Poster Analysis My analysis is based on the movie "Good Fellas". The three men that are featured on the poster pictured in medium frame are the main characters and are also the main focus of my analysis. Robert DeNiro:The facial expressions and posture of DeNiro shown on the poster enables you to see that he looks like a rough tough guy who is very serious when it comes to business. The frown on his face as evidence by his creased forehead and one eyebrow higher than the other together with his folded arms and upright stance suggest that he is serious. In addition to this the larger size of the face as well as that of his whole frame in comparison to the others tells that he is the authorative figure and maybe the oldest. He is wearing top businessman suit complete with a red tie, which suggests that he's a man who is not to be crossed, as the colour red is symbolic for love or death (blood). In other words he appears to be saying if you are not with me you will be eliminated. Joe Pesci:He...
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
Personal Values Development Paper Personal values and ethical standards are almost like your DNA, individually yours. There are so many people with different values and ethical standards that there may be some that are similar to yours, however, I believe that there are no two exactly alike. People's ethics and values are instilled by one's culture, background and environment. In my family, traditional values were very important to our upbringing. The concepts of religion, family, unity, honesty, and education were instilled at an early age. We were taught to obey and that the first duty of a child was to make our parents proud. I learned very early in my life about diversity, being one of six children brought up by the same set of parents and in the same environment with the same values how differently our values and ethics are. As far back as I can remember my parents instilled into us that religion was the uttermost important thing in life. First was God and church then your family, every night we were reminded to say our prayers, to pray for our family, friends and those less fortunate than us. Without fail every Wednesday we attended bible study and every Sunday we attended church service. If for some reason we failed to come home on time to make bible study we were not allowed to go out or talk on the phone until we attended Sunday service or if we failed to make it to Sunday service we were not allowed to go out or talk on the phone until we attended Wednesday night bible study. As children we had no problem attending services, however as teenagers my two older brothers and I started to have a little bit of a problem with this attending church twice a week thing. I remember accusing my parents of chuffing r... ...to the business owner of our family run business. And due to all the various types of responsibilities associated with each occupation, my personal values have gone through some adaptability or you may say maturity. Which in part has made me the person I am today, I strive to impart good working values on to my employees by doing to them what I would have wanted someone to do for me. By example I strive to be an honest, compassionate, and trust worthy business manager and family member. By no means am I perfect, believe me my family would vouch for that, however I do strive to instill into my nieces and nephews the same values and morals that my parents instilled into us. And everyday I strive to improve in each area just a little bit more, if I can help one person become a better person in my lifetime then my parents have succeeded in raising a good person.
This essay will attempt to highlight and evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the three main theories of counselling within the module covered this term. The three approaches in discussion are psychodynamics, cognitive behavioural and humanistic. The psychodynamic theory originated from Sigmund Freud, a medical doctor and philosopher (1856 - 1939) founded in the 1900s. Freud developed his ideas whilst working as a psychiatrist in Vienna, collecting information from his patients such as feelings, thoughts and early childhood experiences. The psychodynamic theory focuses on the unconscious mind. FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s credence is that different mental forces operate in the mind. The unconscious mind can be described as being like an iceberg. The tip of the iceberg represents the part of the mind that is conscious, everyday thoughts. The iceberg just below the waterÃ¢â¬â¢s surface represents the pre conscious, thoughts and information that can be retrieved easily. And finally the base of the iceberg is the unconscious part of the mind where fears, traumas and bad experiences are contained, almost impossible to retrieve. Freud argued that slips of the tongue are repressed expressions made by the person unknowingly. The term used for this is a Freudian slip. Freud emphasized that early childhood experiences are important to the development of the adult personality, proposing that childhood development took place over five stages; oral, anal. Phallic, latent and genital. The phallic stage is the most important stage which contains the Oedipus complex. This is where the child (age 4 - 6 yrs) posses the opposite sex parent and wants rid of the same sex parent. Freud argued that if the conflict is not resolved in childhood then it could cause ... ... objectively discoverable facts. This essay has discussed the three main approaches in counselling, looking at both strengths and weaknesses of each. It is evident that every theory is embedded in historical and cultural issues. Although the three approaches have the same initial focus, to enable clients to make conscious their personal meanings and bring them into a place of awareness. It is clear that there is no right or wrong approach, each has contributed to science and society. Works Cited PENNINGTON, D ( 2002) , Introducing Psychology: Approaches, Topics and Methods MALAN, H, D, ( 1979 ) , Individual Psychotherapy and the science of Psychodynamics, Oxford GROSS, R, ( 2005 ), Psychology, The science of mind and behaviour, London. Piotrowski, NA 2005, Psychology Basics, Salem Press, eBook Collection, EBSCOhost, viewed 25 August 2011.
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
The U. S. is now in its fifth straight year of economic growth. (There was a brief recession back in 2001. ) It has been observed over the last 60 years economic that recoveries on average last only five years. Once the five-year mark is reached, an economy typically runs into trouble. Cracks and strains start to appear. Inflation pressures build, interest rates move higher, housing weakens and business inventories begin to swell. On the media pundits utter the Ã¢â¬Å"RÃ¢â¬ word (recession) more frequently at this juncture. So the obvious question is: If the present recovery is five years old, is this economy now in jeopardy? The answer, fortunately, is no. Some sectors, like housing, are showing signs of tiring. Even the pace of job creation has been slowing the last four months. However, when diagnosing the health of an economy, it is vital to differentiate between an economy that is merely slowing to a more moderate and sustainable pace Ã¢â¬â from one where fundamentals have so deteriorated that a recession is all but inevitable. All evidence this time points to the former, namely that the economy remains in sound health with the business cycle far from over. The economy has indeed performed very well so far in 2006. Growth surged an estimated 4. 5% annual pace in the first half Ã¢â¬â despite high energy prices and rising interest rates. Inflation, though slightly higher than what the Federal Reserve prefers, is still quite benign. Companies continue to focus on operating more efficiently and raising productivity levels. Job creation, which has been disappointing recently, is still running at an average of nearly 150,000 a month, very near the level of 165,000 per month seen in 2005. S&P 500 earnings are expected to increase by 11% in the second quarter, after a 15% jump in the first three months (Baumohl).
Monday, September 16, 2019
The initial opposing party to Barre's regime was conducted by the officers in the army after his defeated in Ogden war in 1977, some of them were sentenced and others escaped to Ethiopia and established the first opposing front called Ã¢â¬Å"Somali salvation Democratie FrofÃ¢â¬ (SSDF), as well as the immigrants of Ishaq tribe in England established Ã¢â¬Å"Somali National MovementÃ¢â¬ (SNM). Later in 1989, the United Somali Movement was formed by Hawiya tribe and controlled Mogadishu. The next year about (100) politicians signed a document demanding Barre to resign and appointing a transitional government. In 1991, the Somali Congress Forces (SCF) led by Mohammed Farah Aidid defeated the government forces, however Barre coerced to escape to Ã¢â¬Å"GedoÃ¢â¬ near Kenyan borders. The ouster of Barre's government left behind a vacuum power which inspired the appetite of opposing groups to govern. An armed combat between (USC) commanders Mohammed Aidid and Ali Mahdi Mohammed to control of the capital. The fighting lasted for 100 days and the number of the victims was estimated about (30.000) thousands. On the meantime, the (SNM) proclaimed independence under the name of Somaliland. In 1992, a cease fire between Aidid and Ali Mehdi was a greed, and no one controlled the capital which amplify the gap between the north and the south. The United Nation Operation in Somalia I (UNOSOM I) was establish in 1992 to maintain ceasefire and support humanitarian relief efforts (Khaleji, 2007). Unfortunately, the ceasefire was ignored and fighting nonstop. In 1992, about (350.000) Somali died due to illness, hunger and civil war. The US established multinational forces to secure humanitarian processes and it became United Task Force (UNITF) after approving by Security Council. In March 1993, the United Nation operation in Somalia II (UNOSOM II) started to reconstruct Somali state and economy. They withdraw in 1995 after having incurred causalities. In 1995, the military combat between local parties became less intense. Aidid stated himself as a president of the Somalia without getting any recognition. His forces occupied Daidoa. In 1996, Ali Mehdi elected as a chairman of the United Somali Congress and Somali Calvation Alliance (USC//SSA). In the same year, Aidid died of his wounds. In 2000, Ali Mehdi lost votes to Abdulqasim Salad Hasssan. In the same year, the transitional national government (TNG) was established because of Somali National Arta Conference in Djibouti. In 2004, the Transitional Federal Government was established in Nairobi. In 2006, a clash between U.S backed militia leaders and Islamic Courts Union (ICU) which won the combat and controlled most of the Southern Somalia (Dresso,2009). Thus, Ethiopia entered Somalia as allies to (TFG) against (ICU). The next year president Abdullah control Mogadishu and US began strike against al-Qaida. In 2010, al-Shabaab declared a coalition with al-Qaida and attacked the capital. In the same year, the famine killed about 260,000 people. In 2012, the Federal Government of Somalia was established. In 2013, US recognized the Somali government for the first time since 1991. In the same year and the next, al-Shabaab conducted some attack operations against Kenya like what happened in November a mass killing in north-east Kenya. In 2016, the African Union leaders agreed to raise their troops and support their military to deteriorate al-Shabaab. In 2017, Mohammed Abdullah selected as a president of Somalia. In October 2017, bombing killed about 350 people in Mogadishu. In march 2018, about 18 citizens were killed and 22 others injured because of blast close to hotel in Mogadishu.
Sunday, September 15, 2019
Carol Berkin clearly states her thesis in the introduction of Revolutionary Mothers. Ã¢â¬Å"Despite the absence of radical changes in gender ideology and gender roles for most women, the Revolution did lend legitimacy to new ideas about womenÃ¢â¬â¢s capacities and their proper rolesÃ¢â¬ . (Berkin 2005) In two thousand and fourteen it is questionable about how clearly womenÃ¢â¬â¢s roles have changed especially in the areas of economics and politics at least it is obvious that the revolution did not bring equality. Legal status has changed. Of course, educational opportunities have expanded greatly; however, it often appears the more things change the more they stay the same. Even our popular vernacular demonstrates an entrenched gender inequality. Ã¢â¬Å"You throw like a girlÃ¢â¬ reveals poor physical performance. To concretely state subordination a person need only to make another their Ã¢â¬Å"bitchÃ¢â¬ . Female autonomy is usually used to denote weakness. While women now have the right to vote it is interesting that in the US Senate only 20 of the 100 senators are female. Look to Fortune 500 CEOÃ¢â¬â¢s and you will find only 24 female CEOÃ¢â¬â¢s. (Fairchild 2014) It is standard knowledge that while women are legally entitled to their wages they make 82 cents to the dollar of a maleÃ¢â¬â¢s wages and even lower percentages for women of color. (US Department of Labor 2014) As a result of the Revolution, changes occurred. Ã¢â¬Å"While all those who debated the woman question agreed on the intellectual and moral equality of the sexes, few believed that the two sexed shouldÃ employ their abilities in the same arenas.Ã¢â¬ (Berkin 2005) If this is true of 1781, it is true of 2014 as well. Gender roles still ensure women are not equal social, economic, and political participants in the US. Clearly, women could not have demanded emancipation at the conclusion of the Revolution principally because of strict gender roles on the 1700Ã¢â¬â¢s. Yet to assume women did not contemplate greater political, economic, and social equality because of gender roles would relegate them to inferior intellect and place Victorian ideology onto them in 2014. Women questioned their position as any other individual even though they did not collectively seek radical change. Berkin makes a strong case steeped with evidence about an independent political conscience emerging. Feme covert was the status 18th century women found themselves in upon marriage. This status meant her legal personhood disappeared with marriage as she was assumed by her husband as a dependent. Berkin begins her argument with the role of women at the time of the American Revolution. Women could assume new responsibilities because of her helpmate responsibilities without seeing those responsibilities in light of a desire to change her status. However, more than that was occurring. Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦across the colonies, women and girls developed concerns outside the private world of the family and began to Ã¢â¬Ëthink nationlyÃ¢â¬â¢.Ã¢â¬ (ibid, 11) Largely because of womenÃ¢â¬â¢s roles in the process of boycotting goods, women utilized political power. Women became critical participants in the opposition to Britain. Gender could not stop the obvious question of what would be the meaning of the demanded changes. Purchasing power was used as an effective tool and the humanitiy that pushed women into participation must have also generated questions as to what ch anges would occure because of these protest. Gender roles might have inhibited the action of demanding change but it didnÃ¢â¬â¢t stop the question from beign raised. Being loving or even just obedient partners might explain their involvement but it could not surpress the natural inclienation of asking questions of why. The Edenton Resolves profess that although women owed obedience to their husbands their behavior was also for personal reasons, Ã¢â¬Å"Yet they also declared that it was the duty they owed to themselves.Ã¢â¬ (ibid, 22) Loyality and gender roles would impact female actions and motivations. Ã¢â¬Å"Catherine Schuyler, wife of the American general Philip Schuyler, tossed flaming torches on her fields of wheat rather thanÃ see it used to feed General John BurgoyneÃ¢â¬â¢s invading army.Ã¢â¬ (ibid, 41) Still primal motivations of survival and self interst would dominate motivation. Ã¢â¬Å"The whole world appeared to me as a theatre, where nothing was acted buy cruelty, bloodshed, and oppression; where neither age nor sex escaped the horrors of injustice and violence; where lives and property of the innocent and inoffensive were in continual danger, and the lawless power ranged at large.Ã¢â¬ (idib, 36) Survival motivated. Whether refering to camp followers or Generals wives, self interest moved human action. The Baroness von Riedessel, Martha Washington, or Caty Greene were all tied to their husbands and their success. Their decision to follow their husbands and face the challenges facing soldiers on the front lines with a definite grace related to their own futures and status as much as their husbands and each of these women would have known that fact. Surely loyality and affection played a role in their behavior, but not necessarily many more that self interest. Nathaneal Greene instructs his wife on her options during his absence, Ã¢â¬Å"She chose neither of his suggestions.Ã¢â¬ (ibid, 78) Instead she made her own choice on her own interest. Self interest were linked to an emerging independent conscience. Grace Galloway exposes this point. When her loyalist husband left her in Philadelphia she found herself in dire straits. Even when the government confiscated her property, she worked to retain economic rights. Ã¢â¬Å"Grace did not surrender quietly. Throughout 1778, her journal entries show her determined attempts to separate and recover her dowry property from the rest of her husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s property.Ã¢â¬ (ibid, 94) Female political conscience was also demonstrated by the shift in legal verbage. Ã¢â¬Å"Thus statutes defining treason began to speak of Ã¢â¬ËpersonsÃ¢â¬â¢ rather than mne, of Ã¢â¬Ëhe and sheÃ¢â¬â¢ rathen than Ã¢â¬ËheÃ¢â¬â¢ alonge.Ã¢â¬ (ibid, 100) These Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦independent political choicesÃ¢â¬ (ibid, 100) could be looked at as wifely duties but the law saw otherwise. Native America women also had to weigh self interest in dete rmining the best course of action and the wisest ally in the American Revolution. Gender roles among some Natives were quite different than most European gender roles. So a natural inability to compromise became extremely strained. Ã¢â¬Å"For those steeped in the English traditions of subordination of women, womenÃ¢â¬â¢s councils and women warriors were a radical crossing of gender linesÃ¢â¬ ¦There are few records of Indian womenÃ¢â¬â¢s view of English colonial society. Those that exist suggest amazement at the femaleÃ dependency and exclusion from political life that marked a culture that was as alien to them as theirs was to the English.Ã¢â¬ (ibid, 109) Molly BryantÃ¢â¬â¢s loyalty to Britain marked her belief in protecting her self-interest. Ã¢â¬Å"She believed her political commitment to the Crown honored her husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s memory and, most importantly, served the best interest of her Mohawk kinsmen and women.Ã¢â¬ (ibid, 112) For her entire life she worked as a political leader attempting to secure lands and rights for her people. Several other female Native leaders worked to secure Native interest. The American Revolution would greatly limit the voice of Native people and particularly Nativ e women but many Natives had a definite political conscience which they voiced loudly and often. Gender norms did not stop African Americans women from questioning the ideas of liberty promoted in the American Revolution. Likewise, the self-interest of the British crown encouraged them to court African Americans for support as DunmoreÃ¢â¬â¢s Ethiopian Regiment attest. The chaos of the war offered opportunities for freedom and many sought refuge behind British lines. Usually these opportunities did not lend themselves to freedom with many Africans sold to the West Indies, yet the vast number and movement of Africans show the ability to work towards their own benefit and the ability to think politically. Berkin uses primary sources to lay out her claims including newspapers, letters, and diaries. Relying heavily on the work of Elizabeth ElletÃ¢â¬â¢s Women and the American Revolution, her work was influenced by the gender roles of the 1840Ã¢â¬â¢s and 1850Ã¢â¬â¢s. The Cult of Womanhood cloud the political conscience of Revolutionary women but even so that voice questions personal sovereignty. At times Berkin seems superficial in her arguments; still she argues that change did occur with the American Revolution. There was no great revolution for womenÃ¢â¬â¢s economic, political, and social equality. John Adams states, Ã¢â¬Å"We are obliged to g o fair, and softly, and in Practice We are the subjects. We have only the Name of Masters, and rather than give up this, which would completely subject Us to the Despotism of the Petticoats, I hope General Washington and all our brave Heroes would fight.Ã¢â¬ (ibid, 158) Even so the womenÃ¢â¬â¢s debate did cause pause. Ã¢â¬Å"Reason rules, in every one, the same. No Right, has Man, his Equals to control, Since, all agree, There is no Sex in soul.Ã¢â¬ (ibid, 151) Ã¢â¬Å"WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s participation in the war had given concrete, empirical evidence of their ability to think rationally and make ethicalÃ judgments.Ã¢â¬ (ibid, 152) Carol Berkin uses both famous and obscure women. She looks at patriots and loyalistis, trulls and GeneralÃ¢â¬â¢s wives, Native Americans, African Americans, and spies. The idea of Revolutionary mothers who would train the upcoming generations of Republican citizens guaranteed changes in womenÃ¢â¬â¢s education but at the expense of extensions of rights for women. Yet changes in education would give voice to festering ideas. In spite of this revolution, political conscience began to develop. Suffrage was eventually won but not as an extension of the Revolution. Gender roles of 2014 still create a definite imbalance in society politically, economically, and socially. Women function, work, raise families, display citizenship, pay their bills, and interact within their communities within continued gender restrictions. Because we do not protest or demand immediate resolution does not mean we do not think about, contemplate these inequities. How could Abigail Adams prompt John Adams to Ã¢â¬Å"Remember the LadiesÃ¢â¬ if she did not have a conscience about the injustice of property and legal status of women? Berkin, Carol. Revolutionary Mothers Women in the Struggle for AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s Independence. New York: Vintage Books, 2005. Fairchild, Caroline. Fortune. July 8, 2014. http://fortune.com/2014/07/08/women-ceos-fortune-500-1000/ (accessed November 8, 2014). US Department of Labor. Bureau of Labor Statistics. October 24, 2014. http://www.bls.gov/news.release/pdf/wkyeng.pdf (accessed November 8, 2014).
Saturday, September 14, 2019
This letter is to express my interest in bringing my expertise as an Educator and Counselor to your institution.Ã I possess strong communication skills and have a passion promoting a positive school environment. As you can gather from my attached resume, I have contributed to the personal and academic growth of Elementary students while working for the New York Department of Education.Ã I earned my Masters Degree in English as a Second Language and am currently pursuing my Masters Degree in School Counseling.Ã I believe in maintaining a professional demeanor and resolving conflicts in a diplomatic and courteous manner.Ã I am committed to helping students with disciplinary problems through utilizing effective classroom management techniques in cooperation with parents and school administrators. In addition to the skills noted on my attached resume, I can also offer your organization: An ability to analyze a complex problem and implement a practical solution. Superior presentation and interpersonal communication skills with effective writing skills. Self-motivated professional with experience in helping students attain their academic goals. Excellent analytical skills with an ability to develop comprehensive reports. It is my hope that my education and professional experience will convey to you that I have the qualifications to make a valuable contribution as a School Counselor at any institution.Ã Should you have any questions, I can be reached at the number listed above.
Friday, September 13, 2019
Agressive behavior in adolescent 12-18 - Research Paper Example Since not all parents follow this technique as they are becoming quite busy in their own lives, they fail to discipline their children and their children continue to operate in an aggressive manner. Parents need to ensure that the techniques used for disciplining purposes are not very harsh as children may view continuous harsh treatment as unfair and they may react to these techniques in an aggressive manner. When children may react in an aggressive manner and parents even try to discipline this behavior by implementing harsher punishments, child will become more aggressive. Another theory that provides insight regarding aggressive behavior among teenagers caused by poor parenting is the strain theory. The strain theory asserts that individuals adopt aggressive behaviors because they fail to attain goals, which they value to be positive for their wellbeing (Cullen, 2013 p.148). In the case of teenagers, they put great value on being loved and cared for by their parents. If parents fail to provide love and affection to children, the childÃ¢â¬â¢s expectations are not met and thus he becomes aggressive. Hollist confirms this theory and cites that according to a study, huge portions of juvenile delinquents are those who were coercively treated at their homes (Cox, 2011, p.100). When parenting style is coercive in nature, the bond between the child and the parent becomes weak and due to this, the children become involved in the act of externalizing their problems. For example: a child might have witnessed divorce occurring between his/her parents and due t o the anger of divorce, the child may be involved in picking fights at school. Amato asserts that the rate of divorce in the American society has elevated and huge number of children in various households witnesses their parents fighting with each other (Fine, 2013, p.43). Due to this, a child may perceive that he/she is the
Thursday, September 12, 2019
Poor Communication Between Doctors and Nurses - Speech or Presentation Example Many patients die because some nurses fail to pass some important information about the patients to the doctors. Therefore, effective communication between nurses and doctors should be encouraged to promote positive patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ outcomes. Purpose The programÃ¢â¬â¢s purpose is to promote effective communication between doctors and nurses in hospitals. Additionally, the project aims to reduce the negative effects of poor communication between doctors and nurses by creating awareness. It would be fundamental for the program to state the aspects that constitute appropriate communication within the hospital surroundings. Target population The target populations for this program are the board and the health leaders within the broader care system. Additionally, the program targets doctors and nurses in all the hospitals. I would also be fundamental to include patients because their response is crucial. Benefits of the program The programs will benefit the nurses, doctors, and patients . Effective communication between nurses and doctors improves the relationship between the two professional groups, which in turn enhances job satisfaction and productivity (Gordon, Buchanan & Bretherton, 2008). Most nurses complain about their poor relationship with doctors. Researches show that most nurses never get job fulfillment because of their poor relationship with doctors. The nurses feel inferior in the work places because they experience social stigma. This is because doctors are considered more important that nurses and they should be the ones making the final decisions (Coombs, 2004). Additionally, proper communication between nurses and doctors will help in reducing patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ deaths in hospitals. Lack of communication increases the occurrences of medical errors in hospitals causing unexpected patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ deaths (Gordon, Buchanan & Bretherton, 2008). Researches prove that medical errors are among the five major causes of deaths in the country. Approximately 98,000 patients die in the US because of the medical inaccuracies that result from poor communication (Rosenstein & OÃ¢â¬â¢Daniel, 2009). Nurses do not usually participate in decision-making processes in most hospitals. This makes nurses to assume that the doctors comprehend everything and they fail to give the doctors some vital information, which they do not know about the patients. This leads to giving of wrong prescriptions, which worsen the patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ conditions. Nurses are always the closest individuals to the patients compared to all other healthcare team members. Therefore, they always have better assessments of the patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ needs. However, they are always reluctant to share their observations and assessment results due to poor communication systems in hospitals. Therefore, the program will help in upgrading the health care systems in hospitals by improving communication (Coombs, 2004). The projects will also help in lessening the shortages of nurses. Researc hes show that for last five year, the numbers of nurses has been declining (Gordon, Buchanan & Bretherton, 2008). This has resulted into a shortage of nurses in many countries. This is because they are treated as inferior individuals in the work places. Consequently, most people prefer being doctors because they are accorded additional value than nurses are. Improving communication between doctors and nurses will make the nurses to feel worthy, and many people will be
Wednesday, September 11, 2019
Reflection Paper - Movie Review Example This is portrayed compellingly through the transition we see from Vales hesitant music lessons in classical piano (which is shown to be a talent of his late wifes), to learning the African drum from Tarek, something which he seems to have a knack for. It comes to the point that Vale joins a drummers circle and for the first time in years begins to reconnect with the world around him. Things take a turn for the worse when Tarek is arrested and thrown into a detention centre for illegal immigrants. As Vale hires a lawyer to help Tarek, he starts to navigate a world he had never expected to encounter, or even given much thought to. Tareks mother arrives in the picture unexpectedly, looking for her son- and soon a friendship of quiet domesticity and real affection blossoms between the two. What is evident in the spirit of the film, and one that applies to the diversity issue in present discourse is the opposition between bureaucracy and humanism. Laws and statues are cold, and applied without any form of compassion or inquiry about the human it is being enforced upon. By bringing to us a picture from the other point of view, of the subaltern whose voice is nowhere to be found, we find that it is impossible to turn a blind eye to the system, which in the case of immigration laws, especially, is insensitive and unflinching, a perversion of ideals that claim to serve humanity, and uphold the value of life before everyone else. Which is of course where the debate regarding the diversity issue comes in. Does race, colour, ethnicity or rationality decide which life is to be valued and which is not? Who deserves the help of the system and who should be turned away? The diversity issue is not something that can just be construed as a morality lesson in a film- it exists today in society, in what can be termed first world countries,
Tuesday, September 10, 2019
Business Management - Literature review Example In the current study, the focus will be on role of power in the organisation. The objective will be to find out what constitutes power, what are the several external and internal influences and how power in related to the overall performance and success of an organisation. Critical Review of Literature The relationship between organisation and power is critical and intimate. The organisations exist to the degree to which they are powerful. This power, in turn affects beliefs, behaviours as well as opportunities of groups, individuals, businesses and societies. Organisations endure as a result of various social practices especially those which are repetitive, socially constructive and controlling. As a result power has become an increasingly influential tool to control and manage societies as well as organisations. The relationship between organisations and power can also be called as bi-directional. ... Incorporation of power is critical in understanding how organisations operate in society and how they are interrelated. Workplace is a setting where individuals show a working relationship as well as are independent in accomplishing present as well as future outcomes. Power in organisations is critical as individuals often need particular influences in order to accomplish their objectives and goals. Researchers have also found slight variation on the perspectives of power in workplace and study approaches. The literature has suggested that power can be seen from various perspectives such as structure or system, individual or dyadic relationship. The existence of power in an organisation is the result of its structure or system and its mechanism to control and influence behaviour. According to this approach, power can be described as the capability to mobilise resources and people to get the work done (Katz, 1998). Thus, perceived capacity of the power can be examined against its real influence on the productivity of employees. According to Second, Lawrence and Robinson (2007), organizational power reflects the actions of an individual or an organizational system controlling the beliefs or behaviour of organizational members. This perspective is considered to be more complete as it recognizes organizational power as well as importance of personal power. According to this view per has the ability to get the work done without the occurrence of any resistance. It is believable that leaders can use these perspectives in order to be able to counter resistance from employees and workers during various workplace situations such as takeover, downsizing and union disputes. This perspective also concludes
Monday, September 9, 2019
Organization Change and Development - Essay Example There is not one organization in the world that can survive the current business environment by resisting change (Kaufman, 2007). These changes are not random; rather they are the result of various factors which will be the focus of this paper. Factors Affecting Change The major forces that make organizational change inevitable, which can either be external or internal, are: economic, technological, social, political, legal, labor market and international environments. Every organization has its own unique goals and objectives which are related in one way or another to the changing business environment which is highly dynamic. These factors of change normally force the organization to re-evaluate and change its mode of operation, management and service delivery (Botha and Kourie, 2008). Technology may be the main factor of change that is being experienced all over the business world. The 21st century has been characterized by innovations and introductions of new technologies which ha ve affected the way people love and work. Perhaps the most important of this technological innovation has happened in the communication sector. The development of the telephone, internet and other forms of communication has entirely changed the business environment (Appalbaum, Close and Klasa, 1999). ... The market conditions in the 21st century have also changed quite a lot. Competition has become much stiffer than it was years ago. This competition has been heightened by the ever increasing number of businesses that offer the same or similar products and/or services. The battle to remain relevant in this kind of market environment is one that all organizations must fight on a constant basis. If it means that the organizations have to change the way they conduct their business, then there is no way around it. Globalization is a major reason why market competition has risen to such great heights (Appelbaum, Everard and Hung, 1999). A good example of a business environment that has seen many changes due to changing market conditions is India. After liberalization in the last two centuries, the country has experienced an influx of foreign companies and formation of many others. This has created such high level of competition that those organizations which could not keep up with the cha nge had to close down or merge with those that had already adapted to the changing business environment. Those organizations that were able to re-align their operations with the sweeping changes in the market are some of the countries best today. The political and legal environment is also as turbulent as the business environment of today. This is because it is also vulnerable to frequent changes, which also affect other spheres of life for individuals and organizations alike. Any changes of governance or administration in a country or a region may have great implications for businesses. For instance, if a democratic government is replaced by a totalitarian one, or vise versa, there is likely to be a major shift of
Sunday, September 8, 2019
The Influence of War and Politics on British Music Scenario - Research Paper Example The bands like Iron Maiden, Pink Floyd and other popular contemporary Rock bands have drawn inspiration from the stories of bravery and heroism of the British Army, the infantry, the air force, the navy. The epic battle of the British Infantry (the light brigade) in the deadly cold Russian winter has been a source of inspiration and a literary basis for many compositions of British bands especially Iron Maiden. Similarly global political scenario and the historic speeches and decisions of BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s political leaders like Sir Winston Churchill have also been the literary backbone of compositions. These factors have influenced and given rise to a new sub-genre of existential rock music and influenced popular genres of music like NWOBHM, psychedelic rock, alternate rock etc to step out of the comfort zone of literary contexts and include burning issues, current affairs and write songs on the prevailing national circumstances etc. The report will be discussing the impact of the war scenario of the first half of the 20th century (mainly the first two world wars and the cold war) in the compositions of British Rock and Heavy Metal band Iron Maiden. Brief explanation of New Wave of British Heavy Metal, its origins, and development in the UK: The New Wave of British Heavy Metal was a heavy metal uprising that originated in the 1970Ã¢â¬â¢s and got global attention in the 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s with most number of compositions reaching the top in the international music ranking charts. It was spearheaded by bands like Saxon, Motor Head, Diamond Head, Iron Maiden etc. This genre came into being due to the gradual demise of popular and influential heavy metal bands like Deep Purple, Led Zeppelin, Black Sabbath etc. the lighter and casual elements of the genre of heavy metal were omitted and the sound was re-upholstered to give it a more tough appearance and gigantic stature in terms of heavy usage of guitars and the synthes is of keyboard, guitars and drums. Examination of significant compositions Two Minutes to midnight: The song two minutes to midnight written and performed by Iron Maiden in several international and country tours over the decades is influenced by the concept of the DoomÃ¢â¬â¢s Day. It was a song that has heavy influences of the prevailing Cold War during the eighties after the dismantling of the Axis Powers and peace treaty signed by leading allies in both opposing camps that caused the two greatest wars in the history of mankind. The song is based on the cold war and the bitterness in international relations looming large at the wake of a new future after the end of the world wars. It talks about the gradually advancing dooms day. The dooms day would be nothing but a nuclear holocaust due to nuclear capabilities of nuclear powers spiralling out of control. The song says, Ã¢â¬Å"The golden goose is on the looseÃ¢â¬ which hints at the lurking threat of a nuclear catastrophe due to an unannounced nuclear strike by either party. This was the major fear in the hearts