Sunday, June 28, 2020
Issue In Crimes: Serial killer (Essay Sample) Content: Serial killerInsert name:Institution affiliation:Due date:Psychological gratification is a factor that motivates people to involve in serial killing. According to Hale (1993), serial killing is a habit that can be learned by anybody. In his social learning theory, Hale believes that serial killing is a criminality that depends on an individual socialization. It depends on how an individual has been influenced by relationships and social experiences in the society (agents of socialization). Learning refers to acquiring of knowledge and habit as a consequence of experiences in which an individual is exposed in the environment. Hale (1993) believes in the social learning theory as the influential factor that motivates people to become serial killers. Social events are responsible for influencing the personality of Psychopathic killers. An individual can become a criminal because of the type of friends, family relationships, peer pressures and other social agents that the person interacts with (Hale, 1993). Nevertheless, these habits are not irreversible, and therefore can be unlearned. Holmes and Holmes (2010) say that psychopathic killers are often inappropriately presented as horrible monsters or predators in books, theater, televisions and movies. In a real sense, a psychopathic killer can be anybody like a friend, lover, a homeless person, co-worker or a neighbor on the street. Psychopathic serial killers normally lack interpersonal empathy and they do not have the ability to feel pity. They neither value nor appreciate human life and they are not concern with the impacts of their crimes. They are brutal, indifferent and callous on the way they interact with their victims. A serial criminal is an individual who has killed three or more people over a timeframe of at least one month between the incidents of murder. Serial killers are mostly male, although cases in which females involve in serial killings have also been experienced. Serial kill ing is motivated by different psychological urges including social factors. Many serial killers do normally not appear as if they are killers. Until these people are caught, then the evil of their faces can be seen. Most serial killers maintain or have low profile and live private lives (Hale, 1993). They normally appear to be socially responsible people and mostly hold jobs. They do not want to appear crazy as this will draw attention for arrest and detection. Due to their non-affiliative and cunning relationship to the victims, serial killers can live normally without being detected for several years. Only by accident, their identification and arrest may occur. Nevertheless, it is difficult to know the exact number of serial killers. Under legal policy, serial murder is a crime and therefore illegal. Anybody found to have involved in serial murder; the law approves his arrest, prosecution, and sentence for either death penalty or life sentence in prison. The role of law aims to en sure that sanity is maintained in the society, and human rights are respected (Holmes and Holmes, 2010). Law enforcement effort has been playing crucial role in identifying and monitoring potential serial killers. The enforcement of the rule of law remains to minimize crime by identifying criminals and preventing recidivism. Causal logic behind serial killing aims to understand how did an individual identified as a serial killer turned to be a serial murderer. A better answer depends on the development of the person from his birth time to adulthood. Particularly, life experiences and some biological factors have a greater role of influencing behavior of an individual. Holmes and Holmes (2010) present that serial killers, like any other person, are the product of their social upbringing, their hereditary, and the choices they derive in their life development. Causal logic refers to the complex process which involves the interplay between environmental, social and biological factors. Based on these factors, a person has the capability to choose to behave in a certain way. The influential factors of serial killing are psychological, social and biological in nature, and they are not limited to any particular trait or characteristic. A serial killer, therefore, develops through the combined factors (as stated above) that interrelate mutually. These factors have biological predispositions, psychological urges and social influence. Serial killers are influenced by their exceptional reasons or motives, and they are not motivated by any particular demographic group like their religion, age, sex or race. People do not become serial killers without causative agents. They are normally influenced by their upbringing environment, hereditary factors and decisions they make in their lives.As part reform agenda, criminal justice system currently expects criminals who are identified as serial killers to be given life sentence imprisonment rather than a death penalty. Besides th at, the capability of law enforcement agents to profile serial murders is one of the best law enforcement activities. Serial criminal profiling is a new police tactic which develops the normal deductive reason...
Monday, May 25, 2020
The Great Debate on Doctor Assisted Suicide Euthanasia, in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world, is a word with opposing meanings. Originally, it meant Ã¢â¬Å"a good deathÃ¢â¬ (Leming Dickinson, 2016). Since the legalization of euthanasia around the world in the early 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s, the meaning has changed. Several pro-euthanasia sites would call it a humane and peaceful way to end the dying process, by either stopping the course of treatment or the use of lethal doses of medications (Leming Dickinson, 2016). Con-euthanasia activists are most concerned about the slippery slope idea, being euthanasia is only a half-way house to legalizing murder (Should Euthanasia or Physician-Assisted Suicide Be Legal? - Euthanasia - ProCon.org, 2016). When discussing a topic so sensitive as death, an invisible line appears between a right way and a wrong way to die. By the end of this paper, the hope is to have an educated discussion regarding some social and political inquiries surrounding euthanasia and doct or assisted suicide. Over the last couple of decades, 4 states in the U.S. have voted in favor of the legalization of physician assisted suicide; California, Vermont, Oregon, and Washington (Should Euthanasia or Physician-Assisted Suicide Be Legal? - Euthanasia - ProCon.org, 2016). The state of Montana has physician-assisted suicide, but only through a court hearing (Should Euthanasia or Physician-Assisted Suicide Be Legal? - Euthanasia - ProCon.org, 2016). Given the idea of autonomy, people feel that they have theShow MoreRelatedIs Doctor Assisted Suicide Ethical?1363 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Is Doctor-Assisted Suicide Ethical? Ã¢â¬Å"Doctor-assisted suicide is the act of a physician facilitating the death of patient by providing the means or information to enable a patient to perform a life-ending actÃ¢â¬ (American Medical Association). When thinking of assisted suicide the first thing that comes to mind is whether itÃ¢â¬â¢s ethical for a doctor to assist in the suicide of a patient. There are many arguments both for and against the actRead More Physician-Assisted Suicide is Morally and Ethically Acceptable1160 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Ã Ã Ã The long time debate over medically assisted suicide, the presence of a doctor at a patientÃ¢â¬â¢s suicide, resurfaced again with the conviction of doctor Jack Kevorkian.Ã Kevorkian was convicted of second degree murder when he euthanized, or administered the injection himself, Thomas Youk on September 17, 1998.Ã Dr. Kevorkian, an advocate and practitioner of medically assisted suicides, has many opponents on the issue. Opponents say that it is unethical and even with the consent of the patientRead MoreEssay on Assisted Suicide and Euthanasia911 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAssisted suicide brings a debate that involves professional, legal and ethical issues about the value of the liberty versus the value of life. However, before conceive an opinion about this topic is necessary know deeply its concept. Assisted suicide is known as the act of ending with the life of a terminal illness patients for end with their insupportable pain. Unlike euthanasia, the decision is not made by the doctor and their families, but by the patient. Therefore, doctors should be able to assistRead MoreNew Client. Professor__. English___. 2/28/17. The Implications1182 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesvia euthanasia it becomes an extensively debate regarding the rights of an individual to make that choice. The article Ã¢â¬Å"A Doctor-Assisted Disaster for MedicineÃ¢â¬ loosely examines the negative implications of assisted suicide laws on patients. TofflerÃ¢â¬â¢s article sheds light upon how the law has changed the relationship between patients and their medical provider. Toffler suggests that many individuals are forcefully driven to pursue physician assisted suicide as treatment. In result, many mentally illRead MoreVoluntary Euthanasia and Dr. Kevorkian1251 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAssisted Suicide Euthanasia, possibly one of the most controversial topics in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society. A word that derives from the Greek language meaning, Ã¢â¬Å"good deathÃ¢â¬ . Euthanasia is a term that refers to the practice of intentionally ending a life in order to relieve pain and suffering. Dr. Jack Kevorkian once stated, Ã¢â¬Å"In quixotically trying to conquer death doctors all too frequently do no good for their patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬Å"easeÃ¢â¬ but at the same time they do harm instead by prolonging and even magnifying patientsÃ¢â¬â¢Read MoreSince The Fifteen Century, Society Has Viewed Suicide Or1178 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesSince the fifteen century, society has viewed suicide or intentional death as immoral. It was not until the twentieth century that these Ã¢â¬Å"immoralÃ¢â¬ attitudes were challenged. As of 2016, the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, and Colombia have unambiguously legalized direct assisted dying. Other areas, having to undergo a process of either a judicial or legislative decision, include Canada, Japan, and Germany. Currently in the United States, following the same process of a judicial or legislative processesRead MoreThe Thoughts Of Assisted Suicide1582 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe thoughts of assisted suicide are very mixed. Some people believe that it is a great way to put terminally-ill patients out of the their pain and suffering. They see it as a way for a person to die with dignity after suffering from a painful disease. Others think it is beyond morally wrong for a doctor to intentionally end a patientÃ¢â¬â¢s life. They feel that a doctor should not have unnecessary deaths riding, on their shoulders the rest of their career. Assisted suicide goes way beyond the beliefsRead MoreA Research Study On Physician Assisted Suicide925 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesLiving Proof, Miss Evers Boys, and You DonÃ¢â¬â¢t Know Jack are all movies based off of true events. These three movies all faced ethical and unethical events. Living Proof has to d o with a compassionate research doctor that is trying to get a drug for breast cancer called Herceptin approved through the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). This Film has some unethical and ethical events take place like favoritism, the funding, and of course the process to get FDA approval. Miss Evers Boys had severalRead MoreThe Ethical Issues Of Physician Assisted Suicide Essay1736 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesintentional discontinuation, by the patient s physician, of vital treatment that could prolong the person s life. Assisted suicide occurs when a health care worker provides a patient with tools and/or medication that will help the patient kill him or herself, without the direct intervention of the care provider. This paper will define key terms for my argument against Physician Assisted Death, and why I believe itÃ¢â¬â¢s wrong, where I will provide a brief background of the situation. Next, I will provideRead MoreDying With Dignity. The Right To Assisted Suicide Is A1090 Wor ds Ã |Ã 5 PagesDying With Dignity The right to assisted suicide is a significant topic that concerns people all over the United States. The debates go back and forth about whether a dying patient has the right to die with the assistance of a physician. Some are against it because of religious and moral reasons. Others are for it because of their compassion and respect for the dying. Physicians are also divided on the issue. They differ where they place the line that separates relief from dying--and killing. For
Tuesday, May 19, 2020
The role of civic engagement in neighborhood revitalization, particularly in low income African American communities, has gained increased awareness and in recent years. Community, nonprofit, and government leaders now view civic engagement as a critical component of effective solutions as they seek to address crime, unemployment, low graduation rates and numerous other neighborhood challenges. Several successful initiatives have come to fruition and provide strong evidence of the benefits that increased civic engagement provides. Experts commonly define civic engagement as individual and group actions that collectively address general issues of concern that are public in nature. Civic engagement takes many forms suchÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Such efforts are by no means new as neighborhood revitalization through the civic engagement of residents in low income communities has long been a funding priority of the philanthropic community. The African American community in pa rticular, hard hit by social and economic challenges, presents many opportunities for the increased civic engagement on the part of residents to promote changes in approaches and strategies. Community foundations have the resources and commitment to community revitalization to make significant inroads into solving the problems in low income communities. Tester, Ruel, Anderson, Reitzes, and Oakley (2011) describe issues such as urban renewal as directly responsible for the decline and destruction of low-income African American communities. They argue that strategies such as relocating residents of public housing and high crime areas for example are not solutions to the root cause of the problem Ã¢â¬â lack of support, inadequate resources, and isolation. Further, relocating residents of these communities does not result in improved quality of life. In fact, those moved out of one low income community typically migrate to a similar type of community that is usually only a few miles from where they originally resided. It is at the community level in everyday activities that citizens can experience the most measurable and impactful degree of civic engagement.Show MoreRelatedInequities in Access to Quality Programs: A Detrimental Factor in Continued Strife Within the Urban Underclass 2004 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesyears. Rather the s ituation has grown increasingly dire with continued and extreme inequities. Communities within the urban setting suffer from poverty levels much greater than those in rural communities. Mona Scott (2012), explains that minority groups suffer from the effects of the inequity of poverty. African American communities experience an unemployment rate of 15 percent, whereas white communities have an unemployment rate of 10 percent (p. 177). Great strides must be taken in order to reverseRead MoreAn Assessment of the Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility on Nigerian Society: the Examples of Banking and Communication Industries18990 Words Ã |Ã 76 Pagesfulfillment of other civic rights are enough grounds to have the liberty to take back from the society in terms of CSR undertaken by other stakeholders. Some ten year ago, what characterized the Nigerian society was fragrant pollution of the air, of the water and of the environment. Most corporate organizations are concerned about w hat they can take out of the society, and de-emphasized the need to give back to the society [their host communities]. This attitude often renders the entire community uninhabitableRead MoreHow Technology Affects Consumer Behaviour?14761 Words Ã |Ã 60 Pagesin low resource, low income environments where commercial services are not viable. They also show that users are primarily young males with relatively high socioÃ¢â¬ economic status and prior access to the Internet. Users tend to engage in social and personal activities as opposed to economic activities, for example. Findings on downstream impacts fall on both sides of the equation Ã¢â¬â some studies conclude that impacts are high in a variety of areas Ã¢â¬â development of ICT skills, job creation, civic engagementRead MoreStarbucks 10kÃ¦ËÅ¸Ã¥ · ´Ã¥â¦â¹Ã¨ ´ ¢Ã¥Å ¡Ã¥Ëâ Ã¦Å¾ Ã¦Å ¥Ã¥âÅ .Pdf10155 Words Ã |Ã 41 PagesStarbucks Global Responsibility Report Ã¢â¬â Goals and Progress 2011 Year in Review: Fiscal 2011 From our beginning as a single store in SeattleÃ¢â¬â¢s Pike Place Market in 1971, we have sought to be a catalyst for positive change in the many communities we serve. Now, with more than 17,000 stores in more than 55 countries and a growing business in consumer packaged goods, we find our reach is greater than ever. Just as important, we continue to believe that the ultimate way to scale the power of ourRead MoreInternational Management67196 Words Ã |Ã 269 Pagesmust be able to develop a global mindset in order to effectively adjust, adapt, and navigate the changing landscape they face on a day-to-day basis. In this new eighth edition of International Management, we have taken care to retain the effective foundation gained from research and practice over the past decades. At the same time, we have fully incorporated important new and emerging developments that have changed what international managers are currently facing and likely to face in the coming yearsRead MoreCollin Tec hnologies Case Study Essay examples33525 Words Ã |Ã 135 PagesImplementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Category 3: Customer Focus 3.1 Voice of the Customer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 3.2 Customer Engagement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Category 4: Measurement, Analysis, and Knowledge Management 4.1 Measurement, Analysis, and Improvement of Organizational Performance . . . . . . . . . . . .Read MoreOne Significant Change That Has Occurred in the World Between 1900 and 2005. Explain the Impact This Change Has Made on Our Lives and Why It Is an Important Change.163893 Words Ã |Ã 656 Pagesand Community in Autotown, U.S.A. Van Gosse and Richard Moser, eds., The World the Sixties Made: Politics and Culture in Recent America Joanne Meyerowitz, ed., History and September 11th John McMillian and Paul Buhle, eds., The New Left Revisited David M. Scobey, Empire City: The Making and Meaning of the New York City Landscape Gerda Lerner, Fireweed: A Political Autobiography Allida M. Black, ed., Modern American Queer History Eric Sandweiss, St. Louis: The Evolution of an American UrbanRead MoreMonsanto: Better Living Through Genetic Engineering96204 Words Ã |Ã 385 Pages the demographic analysis may have this comment: Ã¢â¬ËA large baby boomer generation is now becoming more health-conscious. This presents opportunities in health foods and healthy alternatives for conventional foods. It also presents opportunities for low-fat ice creams.Ã¢â¬â¢ Or, in analysing the demographics of the CochlearÃ¢â ¢ Ã¯ ¬ rm, you may conclude that there is a global market of 1.8 million profoundly deaf people and that this provides a huge undeveloped market for the implantable hearing devices industryRead MoreFundamentals of Hrm263904 Words Ã |Ã 1056 PagesFundamentals of Human Resource Management Tenth Edition David A. DeCenzo Coastal Carolina University Conway, SC Stephen P. Robbins San Diego State University San Diego, CA Tenth Edition Contributor Susan L. Verhulst Des Moines Area Community College Ankeny, IA John Wiley Sons, Inc. Associate Publisher Executive Editor Senior Editoral Assistant Marketing Manager Marketing Assistant Production Manager Senior Production Editor Freelance Development Editor Senior Designer InteriorRead More65 Successful Harvard Business School Application Essays 2nd Edition 147256 Words Ã |Ã 190 Pagesapplications. It is worth noting that this book is created by The Harbus News Corporation, an independent nonprofit entity, not the Harvard Business School. The Harbus contributes profits to a grant-making foundation that supports community organizations and schools in the Boston area. The Foundation to date has awarded over $850,000 in grants to forty organizations that pursue initiatives in education and literacy. The views and opinions expressed in this book do not necessarily reflect those of Harvard
Thursday, May 14, 2020
Franklin Delano Roosevelt was born in Hyde Park, NY on January 30, 1882. He grew up extremely wealthy and homeschooled until he was fourteen. However, in 1896 he attended Groton School for boys, a prestigious prep school. He graduated in 1900 and went on to study at Harvard where he received a degree in only three years. He met his wife and fifth cousin Eleanor during this time and they were married on March 17, 1905. After he got married he studied law at Columbia University of Law and passed the bar exam in 1907. Following law school, he practiced law for 3 years before deciding that it was boring and moved on to bigger and better things, such as politics. At age 28 he was invited to run for the New York State Senate in 1910. He ran asÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Naval Reserve which traditionally drilled one weekend a month and two weeks of annual training during the year, receiving base pay and certain special pays when performing inactive duty and full pay and allowances while on active duty or under mobilization orders or otherwise recalled to full active duty. Two years later in 1914 he ran for the U.S. Senate seat for New York and lost due to lack of support. He stayed where he was for a few years and in 1920 accepted the nomination of Vice President to James M. Cox, who was defeated by Warren G. Harding, but FDR gained national exposure. He contracted polio shortly after this and took a few years to recover believing that his political career was over. However, he continued with encouragement from his wife. He helped Alfred E. Smith win the election for governor of New York in 1922, and in 1924 was a strong supporter of Smith against his cousin, Republican Theodore Roosevelt. Franklin Roosevelt gave nominating speeches for Smith at the 1924 and 1928 Democratic conventions; the speech at the 1924 election marked a return to public life following his illness and in 1928 he was elected the governor of New York, during which Roosevelt maintained contacts and mended fences with the Democratic Party, although he had initially made his name as an opponent of New York City s Tammany Hall machine, which typically controlled Democratic Party nominations and political patronage in Manhattan. Roosevelt moderated his stance
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Measles Outbreak: Some Differing Views In Michelle FoxÃ¢â¬â¢s article, Expect measles outbreak to continue, says doctor, Dr. William Schaffner, Vanderbilt UniversityÃ¢â¬â¢s School of Medicine, says that the outbreak will continue for some time because there is a sufficient number of unvaccinated children to continue the spread of measles. According to the CDC, there have been 84 cases of measles and 67 of those have been linked to the outbreak at Disney. Dr. Schaffner also reiterates that measles can be brought to the United States from overseas. If someone from another country comes here with measles and is around unvaccinated children, there is potential to spread the disease. Today, February 1, 2015, CDC Director Tom Frieden said Ã¢â¬Å"the U.S.Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦One of my friends is anti-vaccination and has a daughter under 12 months. His fear is that the ingredients in the vaccines are more harmful than the disease that is to be prevented. He believes that there is a link to autism from vaccinati ons and that they are not good for us. I asked him where he got his information from because I am curious as to why he holds this belief. He was emphatic that the rise in rates of autism and allergies is due to vaccination and that we are not being told what is really in the vaccines. I asked him if he worried about his daughter getting one of these diseases that could kill her. There was a long pause and he told me that no one had ever put it to him in that light. I told him that there is more scientific evidence from reputable sources to prove that autism, allergies and vaccines are not linked. We had a long discussion about the measles outbreak and I found it interesting that he blames those parents that chose not to get their child(ren) vaccinated and yet he does not believe that his choice with his daughter is the Ã¢â¬Å"same thingÃ¢â¬ . I asked him why he blamed those parents and still refused to vaccinate his daughter. He never answered me outright so I just dropped it. I asked him how he would feel if he learned that his unvaccinated child spread a disease to a younger baby and that baby died as
How we do harm is a book based on experiences and life of Dr. Otis BrawleyÃ¢â¬â¢s life as a practicing oncologist at Grady Memorial Hospital in Atlanta, Georgia, and researcher for the National Cancer Institute. This book is based on many issues and facts that our medical system is facing now. He pulls back the curtain on how medicine is really practiced in America. This book shows us every aspect of the complicated triangle relationship between patients, disease and doctors. This book starts with a patient Edna Riggs who was carrying her detached breast in a bag waiting for doctors to get operated on; she was suffering from advanced stage of breast cancer which in turn resulted in infection and eventual auto mastectomy. This sheds light on theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Brawley calls for rational healthcare, healthcare drawn from results-based, scientifically justifiable treatments, and not just the peddling of hot new drugs. He also expressed his thoughts on racism in medicine . He explains reasoned analysis of racially driven information, why black people are afraid of taking medical aid and about his experience as a black doctor practicing, and his interactions with black and white patients, where black people are afraid of doctors where as white not trusting a black doctor. He explains about project LEAD a breast cancer advocacy group founded by Dr. Susan where all the members in this group are trained with a special curriculum using science, statistics and epidemiology. They teach about latest treatments of breast cancer and all about it. Author repeatedly refers to audience in many occasions to fight for the cause of right information and better health care. This book refers a single point that all cancer patients die because of poor medical care. According to author neither rich nor poor are getting close to optimum care considered by him. He says rich suffer from over medicating and unnecessary treatment while poor suffer from inability to access health care. BrawleyÃ¢â¬â¢s efforts to address the workings of the Ã¢â¬Å"cancer industryÃ¢â¬ and the ways in which it fails patients. This, to me, is the real
Within any early childhood education (ECE) setting the pedagogy of the educators will have great impact on the programmes and philosophies which the children within that setting will be influenced by. Teachers have a responsibility to build and maintain authentic, open, reciprocal relationships with children, families and the community (Gailer, 2010). This is not only an integral part of the early childhood curriculum Te Whariki which has relationships as one of its four foundation principles (Ministry of Education [MoE], 1996) but also part of the teaching standards and ethics. As a teacher I relish in the chance to build relationships with many different children, all unique in their culture, strengths, ideas and way of being. The importance I place on relationships sits well with both VygotskyÃ¢â¬â¢s and BronfenbrennerÃ¢â¬â¢s sociocultural theories. Vygotsky emphasised the importance of the people surrounding a child, seeing them crucial for supporting and enhancing the childÃ¢â¬â¢s development. Bronfenbrenner extended this into a model of contextual factors, using ideas about five kinds of contexts surrounding the individual child including their micro- and meso-systems where the interactions of their day-to-day realities occur (Drewery amp; Bird, 2004). These theories have been vital in the development of New ZealandÃ¢â¬â¢s early childhood curriculum, Te Whariki, and so my understandings of these and with my personal philosophy I hope to have the skills to be able to build respectful reciprocal relationships with all learners. Building these relationships however is not as easy as people outside of the profession often assume. Appendix 2 shows Suzie GailerÃ¢â¬â¢s (2010) article on being professional, the article discusses how professional integrity of practice is reliant on teachers having a particular set of values, respect, authenticity, empowerment and transparency. The image of the child is culturally constructed and linked to our time and place in history, the image I have as a teacher today of children is very different to that of which I was viewed as a child. My image of the child has altered as I have gained both practical and theoretical teaching experience. In my first practicums I did not necessarily know what to expect about building initial relationships with children but as I have gained knowledge I now know that children can be trusted to build these relationships in timeframes which are right for them. Te Whariki (MoE, 1996) presents the image of children as competent learners and communicators and I now uphold this image in my teaching practice and as a parent (Appendices 3, 4 amp; 5), along with the values of respect which I have articulated through the following of Magda GerberÃ¢â¬â¢s work. From my own relatively limited practical experience and theoretical knowledge I can relate to the notion of Edwards amp; Nuttall (2005) where Ã¢â¬Å"the pedagogy, or Ã¢â¬Ëthe act of teachingÃ¢â¬â¢, is not only mediated by educatorsÃ¢â¬â¢ understandings about the children, learning, and the curriculum; their understandings about the social settings in which they work, their personal experiences beyond the workplace and their engagement with the centreÃ¢â¬â¢s wider community all have a role in determining the educatorÃ¢â¬â¢s actionsÃ¢â¬ (p. 36). My own underlying beliefs, values and philosophies all impact on my teaching style and, although often unconsciously, on the way I relate to individuals. Commitment to reflective practice, the personal philosophy I have articulated and the desire for professional development will aid me in holding true to a pedagogy which is responsive in time as well as to individuals. This pedagogy with its identified aspects of assessment, planning, implementation and evaluation is influenced by my values and experiences and I attempt to explain and reflect upon these in this essay. The main assessment process I use is Ã¢â¬ËLearning StoriesÃ¢â¬â¢, an approach developed by Dr. Margaret Carr. Learning stories show a snapshot of a learning experience which has been shared with the child or children involved and are a record of the interests and strengths of the child. Research shows that learning is more effective when it is derived from interests, encouraging motivation and the sense of confidence that comes from working within oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own strengths. The learning story framework is based on the belief that developing good learning dispositions is the most important skill in early childhood and this fits well with my values of respect and having the Te Whariki image of the child, a confident, competent learner and communicator. The foundations of learning stories are the dispositions found in Te Whariki and in my own learning stories these are highlighted, showing fellow educators, parents and whanau how I work to support childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s learning in all aspects of the programme and curriculum (Appendices 4, 6 amp; 7). Upholding this image of children in practice is however met with challenges. Woodrow (1999) describes how there are resulting constructions of childhood based on how individuals experienced childhood, on cultural artefacts and on professional knowledge, Ellen Pifer (2000) also describes these conflicting images in her book Demon or Doll (Appendix 8) which has truly opened my mind to ways of seeing individuals. Other teaching professionals may hold different images of children such as the child as innocent or as an embryo adult and this will impact on the way they act around and towards children. Having a commitment towards reflective practice and regularly evaluating my personal pedagogy will allow me to deal with these challenges, giving me the skills to explain my viewpoint and understand that of others so that the best possible outcome is achieved. To undertake such assessment it is important to build a relationship with the children and these reciprocal relationships are another key part of my philosophy. This value has changed with my experience and theoretical knowledge, in my initial practicum I was unsure about how to go about building relationships that are both respectful and reciprocal (Appendices 9 amp; 10) but my confidence in this has, and will continue, to grow (Appendix 11). I believe that building a reciprocal relationship means sharing aspects of my life with children and not expecting them to reveal themselves without the favour being returned. I have a huge passion towards animals and I have shared this with the children on my last two practicums by taking along my guinea pigs (Appendix 12). The children feel aspects of empowerment and trust as I allow them to be intimately involved with a very important part of my personal life. Building such relationships prior to undertaking assessment highlights the spiral nature of teaching and the aspects of pedagogies. Taking the guinea pigs to the centre required planning and careful implementation, including discussion with staff and families to ensure cultural needs were met. Some cultures do not agree with the keeping of animals as pets and in order to uphold the respectful image of the child and relationships with the family and community I needed to accept and respect this belief. The centre policies and legislation also play a role in planning and implementation, health and hygiene regulations needed to be considered for this activity and for others many different policies will come into play. For further assessment and planning the involvement of colleagues and whanau in the learning stories and other documentation would play a vital role in the continuation of the interest but unfortunately the short nature of the practicum did not allow for this. Cultural needs and matches weight heavily in the planning and implementation stages of my pedagogy. This is linked to all the values in my philosophy; relationships, respect and equity. These values mean that I believe in focussing on skills and talents rather than on deficiencies to create learning environments, for example respecting that crying is a valid attempt at communication and can be a qualified learning experience (Appendix 11). Nyland (2004) describes how the participation rights and contexts of infantsÃ¢â¬â¢ knowledge can be overlooked in childcare settings. On-line discussions with fellow students regarding this reading give support to the idea that disrespectful environments adversely affect the identity and participation of children. What happens in an environment when an identity is missing altogether and children are faced with images of white middle class able bodied members of society? What message is that giving to these children and their families? You donÃ¢â¬â¢t belong? You are not a real member of our society? We donÃ¢â¬â¢t value you? The environments we plan for the children speak volumes about how we view society and the people we respect and value (Ellis, R. , Fuamatu, P. Perry Smith, A. M. Moodle; September 2011). During planning I therefore need to think ahead about resources which reflect the cultures within the setting and the community. This can be achieved through communication with other educators in the setting, parents, and other members of the community such as kaumatua or the local priest. Planning for social occasions is also important to me as I feel they link the ECE setting with the wider community and social values. This includes events such as MotherÃ¢â¬â¢s and FatherÃ¢â¬â¢s day (Appendix 13) as well as cultural occasions such as the Lantern Festival, Diwali and Pasifika events. Although during such planning I am mindful of the goals and learning outcomes which Te Whariki and the teaching standards present I also constantly remind myself of the holistic nature in which the learning will occur. Lawrence (2004) describes the shift in thinking and programme planning in ECE settings over the past two decades, from keeping children busy to planning cycles and then Te Whariki. Lawrence clarifies that although the word planning is still used; it is not in the traditional sense of the word but rather can be seen as Ã¢â¬Å"reflectively responding to childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s thinking (p. 16). Ã¢â¬ An example in her rticle shows how the learning experience of children can be very different to that pre-planned or expected by the teacher (Appendix 14). A challenge presents itself where teachers have been trained and had experience in times where different planning programmes were utilised, disagreeing views and beliefs can lead to conflict within teaching teams and a dedicat ion to reflective practice is required by all parties if favourable outcomes are to be reached. This reflective practice is a vital part of the evaluation process of my pedagogy. What worked? What didnÃ¢â¬â¢t work? Where do I go from here? Schon (2002) described how the entire process of reflection-in-action, where our knowing is in our action, is central to the skill practitioners have in dealing with situations of uncertainty, instability and uniqueness as well as valuing conflict. Holding true to a value where children are respected as individuals and valued for their own unique set of skills, uncertain and unique situations are inevitable in the day-to-day practice of an ECE setting. With the set of reflective skills I now possess I hope to be able to turn these situations of uncertainty into ones of learning, for both myself and children involved. With continuing professional development and an ever increasing amount of practical experience I feel I am in good stead to continue my career as an early childhood educator and support the children within my influence to grow up in line with the aspirations of Te Whariki, Ã¢â¬Å"competent and confident learners and communicators Ã¢â¬ ¦ a valued contribution to societyÃ¢â¬ .
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: You are required to review the System Security and Patch Policy for Whizbang Publicity and respond to the IT support scenario for this task. Answer: Introduction The maintenance of the system security is the utmost need of the organizations whether large or small (Ben-Asher and Gonzalez 2015). The security features are meant to protect the vulnerable data of the organization. The security is maintained through installation of antivirus softwares and upgradation of the system. The paper describes the system security and Patch policy of Whizbang and provides recommendations to improve the policy. The paper also provides information about the antivirus best suited for the organization and gives a brief overview of the installation and maintenance cost. The paper also provides IT support to the employees queries. It also provides a brief overview of the benefits of installing new antivirus software to the organization. Moreover, the paper also provides the cost estimation of installing the antivirus software in the employees computer. Whizbangs System Security and Patch Policy The major objective of the Publicity System Security and Patch Policy of the Whizbang is to provide a secure network environment for the employees, business partners as well as the contractors. According to the policy the employees are free to install any antivirus of their choice. Moreover, the systems are checked annually for system updates as well as antivirus software updates. Once, an alert to a new patch is found it is analyzed as critical and non-critical and implementation details are respectively applied (Jones and Chin 2015). A risk assessment is also done based on the criticality of the patch. However, after the approval of the updates they are installed in the systems. The usage of the antivirus is different in different systems should be stopped and a similar kind of antivirus should be installed in the computers of all the employees. Moreover, instead of checking the systems annually, the systems should be checked on a regular basis for the status of windows, Microsoft products and antivirus software updates. Responses to the employees emails In response to the first query, for the faster running of the system various changes can be done such as uninstallation of the unused programs as running of programs in the background possess load on the CPU, thus those programs should be uninstalled. Moreover, removal of temporary files adds to the speed of the computer. Prevention of unnecessary startups will affect the speed of the system as less consumption of memory will occur. Other way of increasing the speed of the computer is getting in more RAM (Random Access Memory). RAM is utilized by the programs which are currently in execution (Deriaz 2015). Hence, the system will get slow due to the presence of less RAM. Reconfiguration of the hard drive so as to store information to maximum efficiency can increase the speed of the computer. Moreover, the rtv scan can be stopped by installing pskill. This will stop the rtv scan in the system. Stopping the scan is necessary as it drains out the battery and hampers the speed of the system (Pinel, Shwartz and Tang 2014). For the second query regarding the installation of the Antivirus Live so as to curb down the infectious virus in the system. These pop up notifications are generally false and prior research should be conducted before the installation of such antivirus. The notification does not actually mean that the system is infected as those warnings can be fake and could be caused due to malwares (Meyer, Howard and Loofbourrow 2017). Thus, installation of the Antivirus Live should not be carried out. Trend Micros Office Scan 12.0 The Trend Micro Office Scan 12.0 is considered as the best antivirus software for small business. This antivirus was found successful in detecting zero day and all kinds of malware attacks including the email and web threats (Stroma, Wilson and Wauson 2014). It also has the capacity of detecting the malware prior to testing. It proves to be beneficial for the business as it offers various functionalities such as: Provides user security. Prevents transfer of viruses from the USB devices. Blocks the access of the employees to unauthorized sites. It also shields the system against ransomwares. It automatically updates and monitors the system. It also does not require manual updates as it gets updated automatically. In addition to the above features the antivirus software provides various other features such as no requirement of server or maintenance and also blocks access to inappropriate sites. The software also blocks malicious email attachments and also protects mobile devices. Cost estimation of installing the Antivirus The antivirus Office Scans advanced solutions for maintaining security would cost AUD $59.87 per user. Moreover, an on premise solution would require AUD $62.02 (Trim and Lee 2014). The initial cost of implementation is high, but the software provides additional features to maintain the security of the system. It does not require manual labor to be upgraded as it gets upgraded automatically. It also prevents access to inappropriate websites. The software also provides mobile protection. The software also has a free trail after which it can be downloaded from the companys website. Backup and Recovery The antivirus software offers restoration of the database and also provides the configuration file backup for the office scan server such that the files lost or damaged can be restored back (Chou et al., 2015). There are certain steps to be followed so as to retrieve the lost file or data. Conclusion Thus, with the above discussion it can be concluded that implementation of antivirus is essential for the maintenance of cyber security of the organization. The Security Policy of the organization implements the installation of the similar antivirus software for all the employees as different antivirus software poses different issues which needs to be solved differently and requires immense time. Moreover, the suggested antivirus software provides additional features such as backup and recovery options. Moreover, it prevents the installation of malicious documents by preventing access to inappropriate websites. Moreover, additional costs are also less as it does not require server maintenance and also blocks malicious emails such that the attachments are not installed in the computer system. Hence, prevents the computers from the malwares References Ben-Asher, N. and Gonzalez, C., 2015. Effects of cyber security knowledge on attack detection.Computers in Human Behavior,48, pp.51-61. Chou, S.C.H., Hu, M.H., Kuo, K.C. and Lam, B.K., International Business Machines Corp, 2015.System management controller and method of configuration file backup and recovery. U.S. Patent Application 14/699,599. Deriaz, E., 2015. Six-dimensional adaptive mesh refinement for Vlasov simulation. Jones, B.H. and Chin, A.G., 2015. On the efficacy of smartphone security: A critical analysis of modifications in business students practices over time.International Journal of Information Management,35(5), pp.561-571. Meyer, G.R., Howard Jr, A.R. and Loofbourrow, W., Apple Inc, 2017.System and method for passive detection and context sensitive notification of upgrade availability for computer information. U.S. Patent 9,678,734. Pinel, F., Shwartz, L. and Tang, L., International Business Machines Corp, 2014.Methods and apparatus for system monitoring. U.S. Patent 8,903,923. Stroman, J., Wilson, K. and Wauson, J., 2014.Administrative assistant's and secretary's handbook. AMACOM Div American Mgmt Assn. Trim, P. and Lee, Y.I., 2014.Cyber security management: a governance, risk and compliance framework. Gower Publishing, Ltd..
Monday, April 13, 2020
Tips For Writing Sample Cuegis EssayThe SPA used by most sample expert are SPA and they are required in the essay. They help to emphasize a point that needs to be stressed and to address the reader's concerns or questions. The format is very simple. The sample guide will give you a goal to achieve in order to add more meaning to your essay.Now, as an educator, I would like to make sure that you are clear about what you want to do with your points. Do you need to go in depth on a particular point? Or do you want to just state what you mean and how? If you want to state what you mean, you will need to include a reason why you want to say what you are saying. These tips for sample cues are going to help you to prepare your sample SPA.The first tip for sample cuegis is to choose something that you would like to accomplish. Think about why you are writing the essay. You will need to start with why you want to write the essay. Then, if you are writing the essay for a test, consider the rea sons you want to ace the test.When writing your sample cues, think about how you can add to the point you are making. Then, think about how you can also emphasize the points that are being made. For example, when you say 'My school required a curriculum which uses a variety of systems to keep track of the data,' you can say 'My school required a curriculum which uses a variety of systems to keep track of the data.' How do you do this? It is easy.Here's a tip to help you write a better essay: While you are writing your essay, make sure you are writing from a place of passion. By doing this, you will get a better feeling for what you are writing about. Next, when you have made your points and you think you have a good point, add a comment. It could be a question or it could be anything else. When you have made your point, then it is time to summarize.A great tip for writing your sample cuegis is to begin your essay with a summary. Start with a paragraph that summarizes what you were t rying to say in the introduction. Continue this by discussing why you want to stay on to the end of the essay. Then, start talking about what you were trying to say. Now, you have to remind yourself that a good essay should not only be a whole paragraph, but should also be one paragraph that has a couple of sentences' worth of information. Consider what you learned in your sample guide.The tip for writing a sample Cuegis is that you are going to use it to help you remember your thoughts. When you are writing your sample essay, think about what you wanted to say and what you want to say. Remember that the sample cues are just guidelines, but they are a way to help you in learning how to do it.
Saturday, April 11, 2020
Schizophrenia and Dopamine Hypothesis Essay Yale Alexia Abnormal Psychology 2013FA-PSY-241-1 Tuesday/Thursday 9a. m. 10/9/13 Schizophrenia And the Dopamine Hypothesis INTRO Men will always be mad and those who think the can cure them are the maddest of all. (Volaire, 1759) Schizophrenia, aka the cancer of psychology, has become a vast mystery for psychologist. It accounts for 80% of long-term hospital stays. Even with the conveniences of modern technology we still have yet to be able to discover the true cure for the disorder. There are several unique biological, environmental, and developmental factors that help influence the likelihood of obtaining Schizophrenia. One major influence making its way into spotlight is Dopamine. Multiple studies have shown that an abnormal level of the neurotransmitter Dopamine can indeed be related back to a significant increase in ones likelihood of being diagnosed with Schizophrenia (Creese, Burt, Snyder, 1976). Thus creating the dopamine hypothesis. There are numerous facts that help support the dopamine hypothesis as a significant cause to being diagnosed with Schizophrenia. The main supporting factors for the dopamine hypothesis include evidence from illicit drug use, neuroimaging, and a roup of drugs called phenothiazines. DEFINED Schizophrenia is a mental disorder in which your personal, social, and occupational lives deteriorate as a result from its characteristics that lead to a breakdown of cognitive, emotional, and motor responses. Symptoms of Schizophrenia usually begin to appear during young childhood. The most common symptoms are delusions, hallucinations, disorganized thinking/speech, social withdrawal, and loss of motivation and Judgment. We will write a custom essay sample on Schizophrenia and Dopamine Hypothesis specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Schizophrenia and Dopamine Hypothesis specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Schizophrenia and Dopamine Hypothesis specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer There are three different categories that symptoms can be classified into: positive symptoms symptoms that appear to be in excess of ehavior, emotion, and/or bizarre additions to normal thoughts; negative symptoms symptoms that are in deficit when compared to normal thoughts, behaviors, and emotions; and lastly psychomotor symptoms symptoms dealing with unusual movements or gesturers. Both positive and negative symptoms are typically common, however, one or the other types will typically dominate patients (Keefe Eesley, 2012). ETIOLOGY The etiology of Schizophrenia is commonly attributed to genetics, but environmental factors such as, developmental complications and drug use, that also influence the occurrence rate. Finding an individuals main cause of the disorder can often prove challenging because of the difficulty in telling the separation between the effects of genetics and the environment (Picchioni, Murray, 2007). Having a first- degree relative will set you at a 6. 5% chance of being diagnosed with the disorder. It is thought that there is most likely numerous genes that go into play when it comes to Schizophrenia. There are no known major affecting genes that cause this disorder, but more likely a number of genes with their own small effect and unknown expression. This creates much difficulty when trying to pinpoint the specific related enes (McLaren, Silins, and Hutchingson, 2010). It is believed that people with Schizophrenia are more likely to be born during the winter or spring, if they live in the northern hemisphere. This is thought to be because, while pregnant, Mothers are put at an increased risk of viral exposure to the womb, by things such as infections and hypoxia. Stress and malnutrition can also lead to a slight increase in the risk of the development of Schizophrenia later on in life. As either a child or an adult living in an urban environment, especially when living in poverty, has been found to largely increase your chances of being diagnosed ith this disorder. Having a positive social life and living with supportive parents has been shown to increase the overall well being of the patient (Picchioni, Murray, 2007). The last major factor that influences the diagnosis of Schizophrenia is drug use. Around half of the people who are diagnosed with Schizophrenia also use and abuse drugs and or alcohol. Amphetamines, cocaine, and marijuana are thought to be the major contributors (Picchioni, Murray, 2007; McLaren, Silins, and Hutchingson, 2010). These drugs especially, are associated with the dopamine hypothesis, which will be iscussed later on in greater depth. Other drugs, such as alcohol, may possibly be used as Just a way to cope with the depression, boredom, and loneliness that often follow along with the disorder. RATE/INCIDENCE Approximately 1% of the worlds population is affected by this disorder. That means over 24 million people worldwide have had Schizophrenia at some point in their lives (Van Os J Kapur S, 2009). However, this rate can vary up to threefold according to geographical location. It is 1. 4 times more likely to occur in males than females and usually appears earlier in life for men. People who have biological elatives are at a heightened risk of obtaining Schizophrenia (Coon Mitterer, 2007). Having an identical twin or being the child of two parents with the disorder puts you at an 46%/48% chance of developing the disorder. DIANOSIS Observing ones behavior, as well as listening to the patients past reported experiences, is the most common method of diagnosis. According to the DSM-Vto be diagnosed with Schizophrenia, over a one-month period, you have to experience at least two separate symptoms long enough to become abnormal. At least one of these symptoms has to be delusions, hallucinations, or disorganized speec h. In the evelopment of Schizophrenia there are three different stages: acute, residual, and prodromal stage (Barnett, 2009). The first stage of Schizophrenia is the prodromal stage. This stage refers to the year before the illness appears in which people start showing signs of the disorder. Often they start to isolate themselves from friends and family and have decreased motivation or bunted emotions. The second stage is the acute stage. In this stage someone will start experiencing psychotic symptoms such as hallucinations, delusions, or overly disorganized behavior. This stage shows that the person has fully development the disorder. The third and final stage is the residual stage. This stage is very similar to the prodromal stage. People who are in this stage do not appear psychotic but they may still have strange beliefs and or other negative symptoms such as low energy or lack of emotions (American Medical Network, 2009). TREATMENT To help manage Schizophrenia patients are most often prescribed antipsychotic medications, usually along with psychological help and social support groups (Van Os J, Kapur S, 2009). Since the 1950s, when deinstitutionalization came about, long hospital stays have largely become a thing of the past, although sometimes they do till occur; which depending on the severity of the disorder, can be either voluntary or involuntary. Most antipsychotics reduce the positive symptoms in around 1-2 weeks. So that will get rid, or at least help control, all of the extra crazy sights and sounds. However, there is no significant improvement when it comes to the negative symptoms as well as most of the cognitive dysfunctions (Tandon, Keshavan, Nasrallah, 2008). As long as the patient stays on the medication they should have a largely decreased chance of relapse. Beyond 2-3 years research shows that the antipsychotics may become inconsistent with the significance of the benefits. Based on the costs, benefits, and risks of the medication, a person diagnosed with Schizophrenia would be prescribed with one of two different classes of antipsychotics; either typical, or atypical antipsychotics. Both classes have an equal dropout and relapse rate so it is very debatable as to which class is better than the other. As with many major medications there are separate negative side effects that are associated with the two classes. Antipsychotics in the typical class, such as Haldol, Thorazine, and Prolizin, often have a high rate of extrapyramidal side effects; he major one being tardive dyskinesia (TD)- causing involuntary movements most often affecting the facial region. Patients may not even notice these movements. The newer medications in the atypical class, such as Abilify, Risperdal, and Seroquel, have a much lower risk of TD, but patients will often have a significant increase in body weight gain. Also, if given at too high of a dosage, patients may experience social withdrawal as well as have body tremors/movements that get very close to resembling Parkinsons disease (National Institute Of Mental Health, 2006). PREVENTION Schizophrenia is a disorder with no reliable distinctions for the development of the disease (Cannon, Comblatt, Mcgorry, 2007). This creates an issue for early detection and prevention. There is indecisive evidence as to the effectiveness of early interventions to prevent Schizophrenia (Marshall, Rathbone, 2006). While still in the prodromal phase, it is uncertain that attempting to prevent Schizophrenia is of any benefit and therefore as of 2009 is not recommended. After a year, cognitive behavioral therapy is able to decrease the chance of psychosis in those patients that re of high risk of obtaining the disorder (Stafford MR, Jackson H, Mayo-Wilson E, Morrison AP, Kendall T, 2013). Another preventive measure, that is widely accepted, is staying away from drugs that are thought to be able to cause the disorder, such as meth, coke, and marijuana. This preventive method is also known as the Hugs Not Drugs method (Hugsnotdrugs. com, 2013). PROGNOSIS Schizophrenia can become extremely disabling. Being ranked as the 3rd highest disabling condition in the world, placing Schizophrenia higher up on the list than blindness and paraplegia (Ustun, 1999). Studies have shown that people who are iagnosed more at risk to commit suicide. However, this higher risk of suicide is not significant being as low as only 4. % most likely; most commonly occurring at the beginning of facilitation when they are undergoing extreme stress (Hor k, Taylor M, 2010). Although life expectancy has increased in recent decades, people with Schizophrenia on average have a 12-15 year decrease in life expectancy compared to the normal population. There are three major factors that contribute to the lo wer life expectancy: a lazy/low activity life style, obesity, and smoking cigarettes (Van Os J, Kapur, 2009). Of people diagnosed with Schizophrenia, about % have a continuing disability and problems with relapses. About 17 million people in the world are living with a moderate or severe disability from the disorder. However there are patients that do recover completely and many others are still able to function well in everyday society. Very often people with Schizophrenia are also heavy smokers. Anywhere from 80-90% of Schizophrenic people smoke cigarettes. This is very significant compared to the 20% of people who smoke from the general population. When Schizophrenic people smoke, they tend to smoke very heavy and hard as well as ypically only smoking cigarettes with high nicotine content (APA, 2002, pg. 304). Excess tobacco smoking will of course lead to a higher health risk that contributes to the lower life expectancy. There has yet to be an exact solid answer as to why Schizophrenic people more commonly smoke cigarettes. DOPAMINE D2 The Dopamine hypothesis is a model that states that certain factors, which of whom have been known to create abnormally excessive levels of the neurotransmitter dopamine, have been linked to a significantly increased risk of being diagnosed with Schizophrenia. These abnormal levels of dopamine result from eurons firing too often that make use of dopamine as a neurotransmitter. This causes an uneven shift in the two-way communication within the brain, and sends too many messages at once, in turn producing symptoms that are common to Schizophrenia (Grace, Abi-Dargham, 2011). As more and more studies are being completed, this hypothesis is continuing to provide an evolving basis to help psychologists understand as to how this disorder originates, and how to create better treatments for patients. This theory however, does not solely hold excessive dopamine levels as an absolute and complete explanation for Schizophrenia. The ver activation of the D2 receptors seem to also be a widespread effect of abnormal chemical synapsis. This theory obtained further support during the mid-1970s when Creese made the connection that antipsychotic drugs had a significant ability to block dopamine D2 receptors (creese, Burt, snyder, 1976). METHAMPHETAMINES In recent decades Amphetamines, especially crystal meth, have become widely popular with the more deviant of our societies. There are of course many negative repercussions that affect ones health with the abuse of methamphetamines. The worst of which, is methamphetamines highly addictive properties. When dministered Methamphetamine at significant dosages, the drug becomes neurotoxic specifically to dopamine neurons (Cruickshank, Dyer, 2009). The connection wasnt made until 1966 when Rossum proposed that the hyperactivity of dopamine transmission could responsible for the disorder of Schizophrenia (Rossum, 1966). Rossum also looked back a few years and used Carlsson and Lindqvists research on mice, finding that dopamine plays an important role in the functioning of the extrapyramidal motor system (Carlsson, Lindqvist, 1963). In a study that reviewed hospital records of patients, that were diagnosed with drug dependence/abuse, and dmitted between 1990-2000, they found that people who were hospitalized for methamphetamines had 1. 5-3x more likely chance of being diagnosed at the end of the study with Schizophrenia (Wood, 2011). This statistic of diagnosis being up to 3x more likely to occur with meth use should alone be able to make the effects very noticeable. Since methamphetamines create an influx of dopamine levels, you can easily make the connection that dopamine and Schizophrenia are closely related. During an interview in 2004, Dr. Heather Keizer, a psychiatrist, referred to methamphetamine as the on switch for Schizophrenia (Cudworth, 2005). She also described how even after they (the clinicians) could get the patient cleaned up, and eliminate the drugs from their system but theyd still be psychotic. Often within the year she would diagnose them with Schizophrenia. Again this provides substantial evidence that methamphetamines effect on dopamine is responsible for numerous diagnosis of Schizophrenia. CANNABIS Cannabis has a similar affect on dopamine levels, in turn making it plausible to relate the use of the drug to Schizophrenia. The percentage of people who have been diagnosed Schizophrenia and make use of cannabis is higher than that of the eneral population (Lynch, Rabin, and George, 2012). A whopping 25% of patients with Schizophrenia can be diagnosed with either cannabis abuse or dependence. Information from several cohort studies provided addition evidence of dopamines link to Schizophrenia. Their findings showed that when compared to nonusers, people who used cannabis had a 40% more likely chance of psychosis. This risk was also dose-related, showing that psychotic symptoms had up to a 200% increased chance of appearing in users who made use of cannabis on the regular (Lynch, Rabin, and George, 2012). Again this goes to show that drugs affecting dopamine levels have a significantly obvious relation to an increase in diagnosis of Schizophrenia. If we look at the classical study, started in 1969 of a little more than 50,000 Swedish conscripts, we can have a glimpse at some of the more extreme links cannabis has to Schizophrenia. They found that if you used cannabis more than 50 times, you were nearly SEVEN times more likely to eventually develop Schizophrenia (Andreasson, Allebeck, and Rydberg, 1987). This statistic shows how even a small cannabis consumption can have adverse effects and has more than enough power to shock ny associate of mine that regularly uses cannabis; as well as making them prone to question thetr sanity. PHENOTHIAZINES Phenothiazines are the largest of the five 5 major classes of neuroleptic antipsychotic drugs. Theyre known for their antipsychotic properties and are often associated with severe side effects. These antipsychotics have been found to antagonize dopamine binding, specifically at the D2 dopamine receptors (Creese, Burt, and Snyder, 1976). This effect causes a reduction in the positive psychotic symptoms that people with Schizophrenia experience. So yet again you have a substance influencing Schizophrenia by affecting the brains dopamine receptors. These findings lead to the eventual usage of other antipsychotic classes that included drugs such as Haloperidol. Patients with Schizophrenia are almost always treated with a prescription of antipsychotics, and why is that? Because they work; and the reason they have been proven effective at combating the symptoms of Schizophrenia is because they influence and block dopamine receptors. Which of course helps support the legitimacy of the dopamine hypothesis. NEUROIMAGING Neuroimaging is used as a research tool to measure certain aspects of the brain nd specific mental functions. This comes in use when observing the effects of drugs on the brain. This method came about in the early 1980s and made many improvements on our knowledge of how substances affect our body. This came in use in providing evidence for the dopamine hypothesis, when it was used during a study done in 1986. By comparing neuroimages of a normalized control group to that of people diagnosed with Schizophrenia, they were able to indicate to effects of amphetamines on the brain. They found that people diagnosed with Schizophrenia had increased levels of dopamine, especially in the striatum, when compared to non- sychotic individuals Oacobs, Silverstone, 1986). These images prove that over activity of dopamine is directly linked to being diagnosed with Schizophrenia. CONCLUSION Schizophrenia is an extremely damaging disorder, in which psychologists still have much to learn about the etiology and treatments. In the United States alone, the disorder cost the country nearly $63 billion in 2002 (Wu Eq, 2002). In recent decades studies have conclusively shown that excessive activity in D2 receptors is definitely associated with the onset of Schizophrenia. Support for the dopamine hypothesis is idely shown and proved by studies done on illicit drug use, and the class of drugs called phenothiazines, as well as the development of neuroimaging help provide substantial evidence. With this vast amount of factual information, it is hard to argue against the legitimacy of the dopamine hypothesis. Lastly, the reoccurring motif that you should take home if you want to avoid becoming Schizophrenic is: Dont do drugs. WORKS CITED Cudworth, Laura. Crystal Meth and Schizophrenia. Schizophrenia. com. Schizophrenia Daily News Blog, 6 July 2005. Web. 27 Oct. 2013. Wood, Janice. Heavvy Meth Use May Up Risk of Schizophrenia I Psych Central News. Psych Central. com. PsychCentral, 9 Nov. 2011. Web. 27 Oct. 2013. Freeman, David. Methamphetamine Tied to Schizophrenia. Cbsnews. com. CBS News, 8 Nov. 011. Web. 27 Oct. 2013. Comer, Ronald J. Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology. New York: Worth, 2014. Print. Keefe Eesly, 2012, Neurocognitive Impairments. J. A. Lieberman, T. S. Stroup, D. O. Perkins, Essentials of Schizophrenia. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-5. 5th ed. Washington, D. C. : American Psyc hiatric Association, 2013. Print. Van Os, J. , and S. Kapur. Schizophrenia. NCBI. U. S. National Library of Medicine, 22 Aug. 2009. Web. 27 Oct. 2013. Voltaire. Goodreads. com. Goodreads, n. d. Web. 28 Oct. 2013. Coon, D. Mitterer, 1. 0. (2007). Introduction to Psychology: Gateways to Mind and Behavior (1 lth ed. ). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. Stages of Schizophrenia. Health. am. American Medical Network, 11 May 2009. Web. 25 Oct. 2013. Cannon TD, Cornblatt B, McGorry P. The empirical status of the ultra high-risk (prodromal) research paradigm. Schizophrenia Bulletin. 2007 Marshall M, Rathbone J. Early intervention for psychosis. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2006 Stafford MR, Jackson H, Mayo-Wilson E, Morrison AP, Kendall T. Early interventions to prevent psychosis: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ (Clinical research ed. ). 2013 Jan 18 Clothing Consignment Program. Hugs Not Drugs. Web. 28 Oct. 2013. www. hugsnotdrugs. com Ustun TB. Multiple-informant Ranking Of the Disabling Effects Of Different Health Conditions in 14 Countries. The Lancet. 1999 Hor k, Taylor M. Suicide and schizophrenia: a systematic review of rates and risk factors.. Journal of psychopharmacology (Oxford, England). 2010 Nov. 24 American Psychiatric Association. Task Force on DSM-IV. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental isorders: DSM-IV-TR. American Psychiatric Pub. p. 304 Becker, T. , and R. Kilian. Psychiatric Services for People with Severe Mental Illness across Western Europe: What Can Be Generalized from Current Knowledge about Differences in Provision, Costs and Outcomes of Mental Health Care? onlinelibrarywiley. com. Wiley Online Library, 23 Jan. 2006. Web. 3 Nov. 2013. Tandon, R. , M. Keshavan, and H. Nasrallah. Schizophrenia, Just the Facts: What We Know in 2008Part 1 : Overview. Schizophrenia Research 100. 1-3 (2008): 4-19. Print. Side Effects of Medications for Schizophrenia I Psych Central. Psych Central. com. National Institute Of Mental Health, 2006. eb. 01 NOV. 2013. Picchtont MM, Murray RM. Schizophrenia. BMJ. 2007. Web. 15 Nov. 2013. McLaren, Silins, and Hutchingson. Assessing Evidence For A Causal Link Between Cannabis and Psychosis. National Center for Biotechnology Information. U. S. National Library of Medicine, 21 Jan. 2010. Web. 01 Nov. 2013. Creese, Burt, and Snyder. Dopamine Receptor Binding Predicts Clinical and Pharmacological Potencies of An tischizophrenic Drugs. Sciencemag. org. Science AAAS, 30 Apr. 1976. Web. 12 Nov. 2013. Cruickshank, and Dyer. A Review Of the Clinical Pharmacology of Methamphetamine. National Center for Biotechnology Information. U. S. National Library of Medicine, 29 Apr. 2009. Web. 02 Nov. 2013. Carlsson A, Lindqvist M. Effect Of Chlorpromazine Or Haloperidol On Formation of 3Methoxytyramine and Normetanephrine In Mouse Brain. Acta Pharmacol Toxicol (Copenh) . 1963 Jan 1. Nov. 14. 2013. Rossum. Significance of Dopamine-receptor Blockade for the Mechanism of Action of Neuroleptic Drugs. PubMed. gov. U. S. National Library of Medicine, Apr. 1966. Web. 13 Nov. 2013. Abi-Dargham, and Grace. 20. Dopamine and Schizophrenia. Onlinelibrarywiley. com. Wiley Online Library, 8 Mar. 2011. Web. 04 Nov. 2013. Wu EQ. The economic burden of schizophrenia in the United States in 2002. J Clin Psychiatry. 14 Nov. 2013. Lynch, Rabin, and George. The Cannabis-psychosis Link. PsychiatricTimes. com. Psychiatric Times, 12 Jan. 2012. Web. 02 Nov. 2013. Andreasson, Allebeck, and Rydberg. Cannabis and Schizophrenia. A Longitudinal Study of Swedish Conscripts. PubMed. gov. U. S. National Library of Medicine, 26 Dec. 1987. web. 05 NOV. 2013. Jacobs, D. , and T. Silverstone. Dextroamphetamine-induced Arousal in Human Subjects as a Model for Mania. Psychological Medicine 16. 02 (1986): 323. Print.
Tuesday, March 10, 2020
Understanding Nutrition Essays Understanding Nutrition Essay Understanding Nutrition Essay Understanding Nutrition 1. Describe the normal events of fetal development. How does malnutrition impair fetal development? (Text) Fetal development can be described as the gradual growth of a fetus. It is mainly characterized by three main stages: the zygote, the embryo and the fetus. The zygote is described as the result of the fusion between the sperm and the ova. Thus, a zygote is simply a fertilized ovum. The zygote moves to the uterine wall for a process known as implantation. Implantation is the process where the zygote attaches itself to the uterine wall for getting nourishment (Whitney and Rofles. 2011). The point of attachment, which later develops into the umbilical cord, enables easy and safe movement of nourishment for the developing zygote to develop into a full-grown embryo. At this stage, which is usually approximately 8weeks after conception, the embryo starts to develop the vital organs of the human body such as the heart, spinal cord, limbs, and a digestive system. This is one of the main stages of development of an embryo to become a fetus. The fetus can be described as an almost fully developed infant. At this stage, the fetus grows at rapid speeds attaining considerable size and weight. It begins after the embryo fully develops the vital organs, from two months until the ninth month (Whitney and Rofles. 2011) Malnutrition has devastating effects. The lack of vitamins in the mother results in disorders such as spina bifida and anencephaly, which are because of the neural tube failing to close up completely, thus affecting the development of the central nervous system. Spina bifida is whereby the spinal cord and its bony case fail to close completely. Anencephaly on the other is a very deadly disease and is characterized by the upper end of the neural tube failing to close up, thus the brain fails to develop or is entirely missing(Whitney and Rofles 2011).. This can however, be countered by intake of high folate supplements months before birth. Chronic diseases may arise due to poor dieting during pregnancy, to result in alteration of normal functioning of the infantÃ¢â¬â¢s bodily metabolism leading to deficiencies that leave the infant prone to contract chronic diseases. Lack of vital vitamins that aid in development of vital organs such as pancreas, which may result to diabetes later in life. 2. Compare and contrast major differences in nutrient content of breast milk and cowÃ¢â¬â¢s milk. Breast milk has a balanced check of vital nutrients and very high bioavailability of these nutrients, unlike cow milk, which has high levels of some nutrients and lower levels of other nutrients. Breast milk has the proper composition of hormones meant for healthy psychological development of a baby in contrast to cow milk, which is unbalanced in hormone levels because it is not meant for consumption by an infant. Breast milk facilitates cognitive development of an infant due to the different chemicals and hormones secreted by the mother via the breast to enable child development unlike cow milk, which has a very different chemical composition. Cow milk is not pasteurized, therefore making it a risk for transferring infections that might be fatal to a babyÃ¢â¬â¢s health, whereas breast milk has antibodies in abundance to aid in fighting of potential infections inside the baby who does not have the mechanisms to produce adequate antibodies to fight against infections that keep on recurring. Cow milk is considered acidic in comparison to breast milk, thus this makes it a health risk for the baby if consumed. Cow milk also has a different butter fat content and protein level that the baby might not be able to digest, when compared to breast milk, which has a lower level of protein, and butter fat content. 3. List six (6) nutrition problems associated with drug abuse and tobacco use in adolescent Tobacco use may lead to addiction and can even develop addictions to other substances, which are dangerous. Tobacco when smoked, releases it contents, such as tar, which accumulates in vital organs in the body thus restricting blood flow in the body. Without blood flowing to all parts of the body, thus the affected organs do not have access to nutrients and oxygen. This inevitably leads to drastic loss in weight. Drugs and tobacco use lead to dependencies on the drugs that create a lack of appetite, which characterizes most of the drug users. Drugs due to their high toxicity lead to liver failure because the liver is not able to break down such substances. After such processes, the liver is left frail, and it becomes easy to suffer from diseases such as liver cirrhosis that are associated with alcohol addiction. Alcohol addiction also causes obesity due to the high intake of carbohydrates, which are usually found in the beer making products. Alcohol has a high acid content; this makes it risky for the gut and may cause inflammations in the whole gut after continuous use over long periods, leading to low absorption of proteins. Drug abuse is usually associated with high levels of stress. Stress coupled with substance use, cause imbalances in the general functioning of the body, coupled with substance use. Combined they have devastating effects on the body, such as low appetite which cause loss of weight, high acidity which can cause low levels of absorption of food, thus the body is deprived off its vital needs(Whitney and Rofler 2011). Alcohol causes a lot of dehydration to the body. This is because alcohol when absorbed into the body cannot be fully broken down by the liver, this make the body excrete more, in order to remove the high salt levels in the body. 4. List the factors that increase the risk for B12 and iron deficiency in older adults.The main reason for deficiency in B12 and iron is brought about by lack of protein in their diets. It can be because their ages restrict movement, thus they cannot be able to access stores to purchase foods with proteins. Another factor may be due to lack of adequate finances to provide themselves with the required levels of proteins in their meals. Vitamins B12 and Iron are mainly found in red meat. Due to their ages, they tend to have harder times digesting meat, this tendency develops into disliking meat. Thus, they detach themselves from the main source Vitamins B12 and Iron. As people grow older, they develop a resistance in absorbing the VitaminsB12 and Iron. There are intestinal anomalies resulting in less absorption of many nutrients in the gut. Older people tend to have many ailments, and in the course of treating such ailments, they reduce their ability to absorb Vitamins B12 and Iron due to hormonal imbalance, which can be attributed to the after effects of the drugs. Some older people who have carried drinking habits for long periods may have damaged their guts due to the high acidity of alcohol. References Whitney, E. N., and Rolfes, S. R. (2011). Understanding nutrition. Australia: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.
Saturday, February 22, 2020
Identifying Success Factors of Implementing ERP in Small Organisations - Dissertation Example The paper tells that ERP systems are computer software packages that enable companies to manage all of their operations, such as sales, manufacturing, inventory, accounting, etc. using a single platform. ERP systems officially arrived in the early 1990s, though they evolved over the previous few decades as the separate programs of each functional area began to be integrated into one program. The intent of a single integrated software package was to reduce the direct costs associated with multiple packages (re-entering, reformatting, and reconciling redundant data) while aiding the communication between the functional areas of a business, such as sales and production. The market for ERP systems continues to grow faster than any other software market with significant number of companies worldwide have already implemented an ERP system. The vast scope of an ERP system magnifies the typical "risk-reward" relationship of any business initiative. Davenport described ERP systems as profound ly complex pieces of software that require large investments of money, time and expertise. Correspondingly, he stated that although implementing an ERP system could deliver great rewards for a company, implementation failure could be fatal. In fact, many well- known companies experienced significant challenges implementing their ERP systems. This led researchers to provide insight into what organisations could do to increase their chances of implementation success, resulting in the identification of ERP system implementation Critical Success Factors. ... These factors are not specific to any particular ERP software program as they are based on the organisational aspects of the implementation rather than the technical functionality of the program. Examples of such factors include strategic visioning/planning, management support, project management, and training. Proficiently addressing these CSFs should increase the chances of a successful implementation (Ehie, 2005; Thomas & Huq, 2007). However, with so many factors involved in an ERP system implementation project, there can be no guarantee of implementation success. Problem Statement ERP systems, like many other technological advances, were initially implemented only at large organisations. Over the years, software vendors began to provide ERP systems specifically targeted for midsize market price tolerance and functionality requirements, leading more and more small organisations to implement ERP systems. Small organisations have been shown to posses significantly different characte ristics when compared to large organisations (McAdam, 2002, Ghobadian and Gallear, 1996, Lee and Oakes, 1995). Their organisational structures and culture are relatively informal, their leadership is intimately involved in daily operations and typically lack long-term strategic planning. Furthermore, they have limited human and financial resources, and often lack a dedicated full-time Information Technology (IT) person. All of these factors combine into a significantly different organisational environment for an ERP system implementation when compared to large organisations. The existing research on ERP CSFs is heavily based on experiences at large organisations. This is understandable, considering that
Thursday, February 6, 2020
A response to the prompt - Essay Example Others argue that it might be morally permissible to take lives in certain special cases. There is no agreement or consensus as to what is morally permissible and what is not when it comes to euthanasia. In this paper the issue of euthanasia will be discussed while responding a prompt in which a baby is in considerable pain and has no hope of revival. Different options will be discussed and medical, ethical, legal, and psychological reasons for choosing an option will also be presented. There are three options available for the doctor of Stephanie. The first option involves continuing her treatment without doing anything else. The second option involves slowly withdrawing treatment and Ã¢â¬ËallowingÃ¢â¬â¢ her to die naturally. The second option is a perfect example of passive euthanasia. The third option is to act now and end the life of Stephanie in order to save her from the pain she is experiencing. Below each of the three options will be discussed. The first option will lead to great pain to the patient without any hope of medical revival. But it cannot be ignored that there have been cases where medical evidence has been refuted. This is a safe option for a doctor as continuing the treatment will not break any medical laws or will be morally questionable. But the downside of this option is that the patient will go through immense pain for no good reason and her quality of life will not improve. The second option finds a middle way between the two extreme options, but is still not immune from moral criticism. Some might argue that letting a patient die and taking a life might be morally indifferent (Rachels, 87). This makes the second option also complicated as many also argue against passive euthanasia. However, this option is legally permissible if the decision to stop the treatment is taken with the consent of the parents. The third option is another extreme and calls for ending
Tuesday, January 28, 2020
Nature is not just a matter of presenting landscapes Essay The two poems in which I feel use nature as a source of inducing emotion and meaning to the reader are London, William Blake and To Autumn, Lord Byron. Both poems present nature in highly contrasting forms. To Autumn is a strongly appreciative poem of nature. It presents the cycle of nature and season, a depth to which the narrator appears to be contemplating what autumn represents. The poets is gives a calm and peaceful feeling which is purely created by the scenery and way in which Byron presents nature. London on the other hand contrasts the beautiful scenery of To Autumn by portraying an image of a poverty ridden city where depression is rife. There seems to be an apparent link between the poems which shows how the presentation of nature alters the emotions felt by the reader towards the way of life. Landscape is a main factor that distinguishes these poems. It appears to be the foundation of the poems meanings. The landscape is created by both poets through nature, either in its natural form or of the lacking appearance of natural form. To Autumns main theme is natures seasons and the transitions that take place to nature over time. The narrator is describing the ripening of fruit, possible in an orchard. The beauty of natures changing form is something that is being contemplated by the narrator as they delve to find a deeper meaning in nature. It could be seen that the narrator concludes the cycles has different stages as does life. Within the first stanza the narrator appears to be admiring the ripening process of fruit and how it is preparing to grow fully until it is in perfect form, as suggested by; To Swell the Gourd, and plump the hazel shells. The maturing sun shedding light onto the fruit seems to be the fruits necessary inspiration to ripen into its ideal form. The sun represents the inspiration nature is giving nature on earth. The poet personifies the Sun and seems to indicate the bosom is a creature with a mind of its own; Close blossom-friend of the maturing sun; / Conspiring with him how to load the bless/ The second stanza seems to be presenting the harvesting process and the suns setting upon the fruit. This stanza suggests the presence of natures implications over humans. It again emphasises the peacefulness and tranquillity induced by nature. Natures control over humans is shown in this case through the plants created by nature; Drowsed with the fumes of poppies The admiration of nature through its landscapes, scenes and creatures appears to create a feeling of peaceful, tranquil emotions. There are no challenges presented to natures ripening process. The poem narrates the simplicity and ease nature develops at. This leads on to the contrasting themes presented in London. London has a serious lack of natural form. It was written in the time of the industrial revolution and could be a protest by Blake against this absence of natural form. It presents the city of London, and contrastingly to the natural beauty in To Autumn and the natural course nature develops, it show the effects of destroying nature through urbanisation. The interference of human in adjusting the landscape seems to be the cause of the despairing feeling throughout the poem. The poem portrays a place of misery and despair. The charterd street/ Near where the charted themes do flow, / Indicate the way in which humans are trying to restrict and manipulate natures natural course. The repetition of charterd suggest the limitations human have put on nature and in due course on themselves. The freedom in To Autumn is emphasised by the vastness overwhelming presence of nature. Contrastingly the restricting landscape presented in London is reflected in the lack of freedom suggested to the reader. The use of light in London is a direct contrast to the use in to Autumn. The blackning church and midnight streets give a repressing feeling with an implication of despair. Light is a source given by nature, the lack of it in London emphasises the lack of nature through out the city. In To Autumn the sun is personified and is the giver of life to natures plants, ripening them and creating perfect form. The sun has a Clos bosom-friend that suggests a caring and nurturing instinct. The Presence of Humans is an obvious factor throughout London. There is misery within the city portrayed, and although humans are represented, they appear a more generalised object than individual characters themselves. There is a sense of misery created by the restrictions the inhabitants of the city are living under. The restrictions that have been implemented on these humans, seems to be a reflection of the restrictions the human race has put on nature. In the poem man has destroyed the open vastness of nature that represents freedom. The circumstances they have created for nature, by rectifying buildings, seem in turn to have impacted their way freedom. Through destroying natures natural course they have destroyed the nature of humans. There is no interaction between humans with in the poems and the population seems to be generalised object, as opposed to each individual having a personal character. This could be linked to the destroying of natures difference and replacing the individual areas with identical building all created of concrete and blocks. To support the theory that the humans misery was self inflicted through their choice to destroyed nature, the narrator states that the people are restricted by mind-forged manacles. The Marks of weakness, marks of woe are human traits and do not occur throughout To Autumn. To autumn has very limited presence of human. The presence that is there appear to only be there to admire the wonders of nature and in no way to interfere with its natural form. The attitude humans living in harmony with nature is what creates a far more relaxed and peaceful poem. Immorality is another focus in London that is contrasted by the harmony in to Atumn. There is many suggestions that the people in London are morally corrupt and live in a corrupt society. The Chimney sweepers cry is one reference that shows this. Chimney sweeps were always small children carrying out a very dangerous job with inadequate protection. The matter adults were putting children in a position of danger which may have made them cry suggests morals have been disregarded. The reference to the Blackning Church is another example. The church is a place of help for those in need, God is there to look after those who need help. Yet despair is rife surrounding the church and no source of aid is being supplied. Instead there is a negative dim portrayal of the church. The church within the poem is giving out a hypocritical aura. There appears to be no negative moral within To Autumn, nature and the people live in harmony. As far as the poem explains there does not appear to be any moral corruption, there is a level of respect held by people. The poems moral message is to appreciate nature and the beauty of autumn. The cycle taking place in To Autumn is shown in all aspects on nature. The sun carries out a cycle through the day, rising in the morning and setting in the evening to create the soft-dying day. Even though the cycle is at its end it is portrayed as calm and peaceful this is because it is known it is not the end for ever. The cycle will continue and the beauty and lights the sun has produced during the day will continue on. Again at the beginning of the poem the reader is shown the beauty of fruit ripening until it is ready to be picked from its roots. When it is picked it is not seen as an act of destroying nature but as a part of its cycle. The poem is emphasising that even though autumn is nearing the end of the year and often bring cold and death of plants and nature, it is not the season of death as everything returns. The narrator is appreciating the beauty he sees in nature and the natural death and birth of aspects. This is contrasted in london there is no apparent cycle that is developed in the poem. It suggest the misery and poverty is endless. Nature can not be re created once it has been destroyed in such a way shown in the poem. Therefore the poets is suggesting the happiness and natural cycle can never be restored and the circumstances created are forever. London is formed of four stanzas all containing four lines. Most lines contain eight syllables and there is a regular ABAB rhythm. The format is extrememly neat and compact. This could reflect the repression and restricted life the poem is portraying. Blake uses repetition throughout the poem to emphasis certain words. There are random capital letters placed at points in the poem where they are not grammatically correct, again this could be a method of emphasising these particular words. There is a first person narrative: I wander thro each charterd street, yet there is not personal emotion. The language is plain including no dialect but is forcesful, this supports the lack of personal opinions and feelings portray. This again could be supporting the theme of a generalised and restricted population that cannot think for themselves. To Autumn is presented in a more relaxed from, there are three stanzas of eleven lines each. The length of them makes it easier Keats to present the meanings of the poem though a story telling manner. Each stanza has a different theme and they lead on to one another. The active verbs in To Autumn such as run bend and budding emphasis the process and development in the cycle of nature. Post modifiers such as sitting carelessly are also present, this is to emphasis the tranquillity the poem is presenting. Keats also uses archaic language to emphasise the ancientness of the process taking place in autumn. The language gives a detailed, vivid, visual image. The use of soft letters again shows the calmness as the poem sounds calm when being read aloud. To Autumn and London differ all aspects shown portrayed in the poems. The landscape, attitudes of people and feelings induced when reading the poems all differ. However the poem have a very similar theme, that nature is a source of good and beauty. Blake portrays a world without nature and emphasises that as a result of this people are poverty stricken and miserable. When reading the poem there are feeling of sorrow and disgust at the controlled immoral society. His overall message therefore must have a link with the train of thought; nature unhampered with induces peace and tranquillity. Keats is showing the beauty of nature even in one of the less favourable months. The people throughout the poem are happy in harmony with nature. The reader feels a sense of tranquillity when reading the poem. The poems therefore are highly contrasting yet their underlying moral message is similar and in their individual ways they are showing appreciation for nature.
Monday, January 20, 2020
Our consideration of moral issues in the helping professions should go beyond decision-making in particular cases. We need a more basic set of moral attitudes that can provide the context for making these decisions, and which describe the sort of person the helping professional needs to be. The helping professional needs to be able to perform a large number of supererogatory actions. We can compare helping professionals to both saints and good parents. The work of Sarah Ruddick on the virtues that inform maternal practice can be of great help to us here. She characterizes the kind of emotional and moral attitudes that exemplify good mothers as preservative love. The attitudes that make up preservative love-humility, attentive love, holding and humor-share some common ground with the qualities of saints. The helping professional is in an unusual position in the sense that who he/she is has a strong influence on the efficacy of treatment. Morality in the helping professions needs to ta ke this into account. To be a good helping professional involves a commitment to develop into the right sort of person. The issue of morality in the helping professions is much discussed at present. Most recently, it has come up in connection with issues involving the abuse of trust in relationships of unequal psychological and emotional power. It is a good thing to raise these issues. From the clergy accused of abusing young people to therapists taking advantage of their positions to sexually or emotionally abuse their clients, actions which were formerly concealed through the vulnerability of the client and the authority of the professional need no longer be kept secret. However, this, along with issues such as involuntary incarceration and the u... ...ehavior are not immediately accessible to the will. To become a person capable of preservative love requires a strong desire to do so and a willingness to do what is necessary to develop into the sort of person who can manifest preservative love. We cannot become unselfish, humble and attentive in the same way that we can decide to follow a moral rule. We require both education in virtue and transforming self-knowledge. Notes (1) Sarah Ruddick, "Maternal Thinking" in Mothering: Essays in Feminist Theory, ed. Joyce Trebilcot ( Rowan and Allanheld, Totowa, New Jersey, 1983) p. 240. (2) Ruddick, op.cit., p.213 (3) Ruddick, op.cit., p. 217 (4) Ruddick, op.cit., p. 223 (5) See Bonnelle Strickling, "Self-Abnegation" in Feminist Perspectives: Philosopohical Essays on Method and Morals, ed. L. Code, S. Mullet and C. Overall (University of Toronto, 1983).